Chapter 10 Building and Strengthening Germany Steps Towards
Chapter 10 Building and Strengthening Germany
Steps Towards Unity � Napoleon � Zollverein � Dissolved the Holy Roman Empire and organized the German states into the Rhine Confederation. � After Napoleon’s defeat, the Congress of Vienna created the German Confederation, headed by Austria. � Created to take out tariff barriers between German states.
German States Before Unification
Leaders of a Unified Germany PRUSSIAN KING WILLIAM I OTTO VON BISMARCK
Bismarck and Unification � Otto von Bismarck � Prussian Chancellor � Realpolitik � Bismarck was a master of � Strengthening the Army � Bismarck built up the (prime minister) of the German states in 1862. realpolitik (realistic policies based on the needs of the state). Prussian army. Led Prussia into three wars.
Bismarck’s Wars � Wars with Denmark and Austria � In 1864, Bismarck formed an alliance with Austria against Denmark. � In 1866, Bismarck turned on Austria and attacked them and won. � After he defeated Austria, he allowed them to be independent (an example of realpolitik).
Otto von Bismarck: Letter to Minister von Manteuffel, 1856 � Because of the policy of Vienna [Congress of Vienna, 1815], Germany is clearly too small for us both [Austria and Prussia]; as long as an honorable arrangement concerning the influence of each in Germany cannot be concluded and carried out, we will both plough the same disputed acre, and Austria will remain the only state to whom we can permanently lose or from whom we can permanently gain… I wish only to express my conviction that, in the not too distant future, we shall have to fight for our existence against Austria and that it is not within our power to avoid that, since the course of events in Germany has no other solution. � Why will they have to attack Austria?
Otto von Bismarck: 1866 � “We had to avoid wounding Austria too severely; we had to avoid leaving behind in her any unnecessary bitterness of feeling or desire for revenge; we ought rather to reserve the possibility of becoming friends again with our adversary of the moment, and in any case to regard the Austrian state as a piece on the European chessboard. If Austria were severely injured, she would become the ally of France and of every other opponent of ours; she would even sacrifice her anti-Russian interests for the sake of revenge on Prussia” � Why would they want to become friends again with Austria and not wound her too severely?
Bismarck’s Wars � Franco-Prussian War � Bismarck released a telegraph in which the Prussian King William I insulted Napoleon III of France. � Napoleon III declared war on Prussia in 1870. � The Prussian force, supported by troops from other German states, defeated the French in only a few weeks.
The Second Reich � Kaiser William I � Bismarck’s Constitution and Legislature. � William I of Prussia took the title of Kaiser (Emperor) of Germany. � In January 1871, German nationalists celebrated the birth of the Second Reich (or Empire). � A German Constitution set up a two-house legislature. The Bundesrat (upper house) was appointed by the rulers of the German states. The Reichstag (lower house) was elected by universal male suffrage.
German Industry under Bismarck � Economic Development � Germany had ample iron and coal resources. � They had a disciplined and educated workforce. � Germany organized a central banking system and promoted a single currency. � Produced weapons and steel for the world market. � Supported research and development in universities.
Domestic Policies of Bismarck � Kulturkampf Against the Church � Against Socialists Bismarck launched a “battle for civilization” against the Catholic Church. � He wanted to make Catholics put loyalty to Germany over the Church. � In the 1870 s, German Marxists organized the Social Democratic party. � Bismarck feared that socialists would turn workers towards revolution. � Bismarck gave workers many reforms. � The Social Democratic party continued to grow in strength. �
Germany After Unification
Kaiser William II � Succeeded his grandfather William I as Kaiser in 1888. � In 1890, he asked Bismarck to resign. � William II’s government provided social welfare programs. � He launched an ambitious campaign to expand the German navy and win an overseas empire.
OVB Reading �Read the attached Primary Source Document �Underline important key ideas �Circle any words you do not know and cannot infer the meaning of �Answer the two questions that follow the document