- Slides: 37
Chapter 1 What Is Wine? © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.
Objectives • After reading this chapter, you should be able to – discuss the historical origins of winemaking. – describe the influence of the Greek and Roman civilizations on winemaking. – explain the role of the church in winemaking during the Middle Ages. – describe the economic cycles of grape growing and winemaking. © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.
Introduction • Wine has been an integral part of the human experience for nearly 70 centuries. • Wine is the result of the fermentation of juice from grapes. • Fermentation is a natural process that acts to stabilize grape juice and allow it to be stored as wine for later consumption. • The alcohol in wine that is produced by fermentation also prevents the growth of pathogenic microorganisms. © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.
Introduction (continued) • Over the centuries different cultures have had contrasting opinions on wine. – Some regard it as an essential and healthful beverage, others have shunned its use and consider it sinful. – These competing ideas have influenced the development of wine during the course of history, and continue to affect its place in society today. © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.
The History of Wine • Wine was first consumed in the areas of Persia (modern day Iran) around 5000 to 6000 BC. – Though the exact nature of the wine is uncertain, it was probably made from dates or other tree fruits native to the region rather than grapes. • Around 3000 BC, winemaking from grapes began with the Egyptians and the Phoenicians producing wines from grapes. © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.
The History of Wine (continued) • Ancient Egyptian artwork and sculptures provide a great deal of information about the winemaking practices of the time. – The paintings indicate that wine production had evolved into an elaborate procedure. • Containers of wine have been found in royal burial chambers for the dead to enjoy in the afterlife. – The vessels were marked with the origin and vintage of the grapes that produced the wine. © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.
Ancient Greece • By 2000 BC, wine had become an important part of Greek culture. • Beginning around 1000 BC, the expansion of the Greek empire brought vineyards and winemaking to regions throughout the Mediterranean basin. – Including parts of North Africa, Southern Spain, southwest France, Sicily, and much of the Italian mainland. © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.
Ancient Greece (continued) • The wine was most likely made from dried grapes or raisins. – The Greeks stored their wines in containers called amphorae. • Like the Egyptians before them, wine occupied a large place in Greek society and The Greeks created a deity, Dionysus, in honor of wine. © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.
The Roman Era • Though the growing of wine grapes in Italy predated the rise of the Roman Empire by many centuries, the Romans took viticulture and winemaking to a new height. – They began the practice of trellising vines off the ground by training them to grow up trees. – The Romans' technological advances in winemaking were thoroughly documented in literature and art. • The Romans were first‑rate barrel makers or coopers, and storage in wooden barrels as well as in clay amphorae was common. © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.
The Roman Era (continued) • As it had with the Greeks, Roman viticulture and winemaking followed Roman legions as they pushed the boundaries of their empire north and westward. – The Romans grew grapes throughout Italy, expanded the vineyards of Spain north to the Pyrenees, throughout what is now modern Portugal and France, and around the first century they continued the expansion into what is now modern Germany. © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.
The Roman Era (continued) • The Romans were keen observers of the agricultural process. – Books, dating from as early as the third century BC, describe grape growing and winemaking in detail. – Their knowledge of matching grape varieties to soils and climates, trellising, and other growing techniques form the basis for many contemporary practices. – The medicinal qualities of wine were also highly regarded by the Romans. © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.
The Roman Era (continued) • Wine was also significant to Jewish and early Christian cultures. • Wine is mentioned more than 150 times in the Old Testament and is an important part of Jewish religious celebrations such as weddings and Passover. • As Christianity grew in popularity, the religious significance of wine also grew. – Christ’s first miracle was the conversion of water to wine. – Christians also consumed wine as a sacrament during Mass in a reenactment of the Last Supper. © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.
The Middle Ages • The fall of Rome, at the end of the second century, ushered in a long period of great strife throughout the civilized world. • Wars between the Franks, Teutons, and Goths brought widespread destruction. • In the seventh century AD, the Moors of North Africa crossed the Straits of Gibraltar and invaded Spain. – Although the Moors’ Islamic faith prevented them from consuming alcohol, they allowed viticulture and winemaking to continue in the region. © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.
The Middle Ages (continued) • During the Middle Ages, the practice of agricultural activity in much of Europe fell to the Catholic Church. – Some of the monasteries became great centers of study and commerce. • In the early seventh century, Pope Gregory the Great instructed the monastic orders to expand wine production, and the planting of wine grapes again began to spread. – The church kept strict control of winemaking. Grapes were required to be pressed in monasteries, for which a “donation” of ten percent of production was taken. © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.
The Middle Ages (continued) • Monks continued the study of viticulture (grape growing) and winemaking (enology) begun by their Roman predecessors. – Matching grape varieties to soil conditions and climate, propagation and planting, trellising, crushing, fermenting, fining, and storage were all meticulously studied and improved. • Villages formed around monasteries, many growing into cities of 20, 000 or more. • Farmers began using the skills learned from the monks to improve and expand their own vineyards. © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.
Twelfth Century to Modern Times • By the twelfth century, the political landscape of Europe had undergone great changes. • The Norman Conquest in 1066 had created a situation where English kings were also French nobility with the right to own lands on both sides of the English Channel. • During the reigns of Henry II and his son, Richard the Lion Hearted, the English developed an enormous thirst for the wines of France. Wines from Languedoc, Loire, and Bordeaux poured across the channel. © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.
Twelfth Century to Modern Times (continued) • It took nearly three centuries, including a continuing series of wars for the French to dislodge the English from their precious vineyards. – In 1429, led by Joan of Arc, the French drove the English out of the Loire Valley, and in 1453, they succeeded in expelling them from Bordeaux. – With the loss of their French territories, the British turned to other regions such as Germany, Italy, Portugal, and Spain to satisfy their thirst for wine. © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.
Twelfth Century to Modern Times (continued) • By the end of the fifteenth century, the great European Renaissance was well underway. – Literally a “rebirth” in creative thinking, the Renaissance was to have a profound effect on religion, philosophy, science, and art. • The monastic orders became easy targets for religious reformers, and it wasn’t long before their economic and political hold on the populace began to fade. • By the end of the seventeenth century, much of the church’s vineyard holdings had been broken up and passed back into private hands. © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.
The Introduction of Champagne • The early eighteenth century saw the widespread use of cork as a bottle stopper and the development of sparkling wine or Champagne. – This is more than a coincidence because Champagne bottles require a good seal. • Although the Benedictine monk, Dom Perignon, is often credited with the discovery of Champagne, he probably produced them by accident and others developed the techniques of production. • Cork revolutionized the storing and aging of wines, making it possible to age them for long periods and to ship them in bottles to distant markets. © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.
Golden Age of Wine • It was in the ninetieth century, though, that wine enjoyed its greatest advances and suffered one of its most devastating blows. • The advent of modern studies of chemistry and microbiology brought a deeper understanding of the winemaking process, and the laboratory soon began playing a major role in winemaking. – This better understanding of technology, combined with the knowledge gained by centuries of trial and error in European vineyards, resulted in huge advances in the quality of wine. © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.
Golden Age of Wine (continued) • As the science and caliber of wine took a leap forward, wine appreciation in the modern sense was born. • Attracted to the glamour of winemaking, the wealthy soon began buying up vineyards throughout Europe labeling their products with both their family and estate names. • The French established a system to classify their vineyards. © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.
Phylloxera • In the second half of the ninetieth century, disaster struck in the form of a microscopic root louse, phylloxera, that is native to the eastern United States. – The pest was brought to France on a ship carrying grapevines that were native to North America. – By 1868, phylloxera had been identified in southern France. Within 20 years, it spread throughout the country, destroying most of the vineyards. – By 1874, it had also infected Germany, and soon all the vineyards of Europe were infected. © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.
Phylloxera (continued) • It was not until growers began replanting their vineyards with rootstocks from North America that were resistant to the pest that Europe’s winemaking industry was revived. • This practice is still used today where phylloxera is present. © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.
The New World • It was during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries that the wine industry in the New World became commercially important. – Though some areas, especially California, had an already established wine industry, many of today’s new -world wine regions trace their start to the years between 1880 and 1910. • Vineyards in North and South America, Australia, and South Africa flourished with the influx of immigrants from Europe. © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.
The New World (continued) • The new-world producers took their cue from their European predecessors, in many cases borrowing grape varieties, techniques, and technologies. • However, when winemakers from different growing regions of Europe came to the New World, they adapted old-world methods to the particular conditions in their new homes. – This combination of winemaking techniques from around Europe helped to create many innovations. © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.
The Twentieth Century • The first half of the twentieth century, with its two devastating world wars, again saw setbacks in winemaking worldwide. • In America, this was compounded by Prohibition, which outlawed the sale or consumption of alcoholic beverages from 1919 until 1933. – The temperance movement had been gaining ground for 100 years, and at the end of World War I, the Volsted Act was passed implementing prohibition as the 18 th Amendment. © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.
The Twentieth Century (continued) • Prohibition did little to control alcohol consumption, and Americans continued to drink “bootleg” alcohol obtained illegally or primitive wines made at home. • The 18 th amendment was repealed in 1933 when it became obvious that it was not working. – During prohibition Americans’ tastes changed because wine drinkers became used to drinking substandard homemade wines. – As part of repeal, each state was allowed to make its own regulations governing alcohol that led to a confusing patchwork of state laws that still survive. © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.
The Twentieth Century (continued) • Following the Second World War, both the old- and new-world wine industries saw a resurgence as reconstruction monies flowed to Europe and returning U. S. servicemen came home with a newly acquired interest in wine. • By the 1950 s, wine, as a beverage and as a business, was again on the rise. © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.
The Twentieth Century (continued) • Throughout the 1960 s and 1970 s, wine production and consumption grew at an increasing pace. – In America producers began naming their wines after the grape varieties they were made of (e. g. , Cabernet Sauvignon or Chardonnay) instead of following the common practice of using French geographic names, such as Burgundy or Chablis, to identify their wines. © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.
Wine Today • Since the early 1970 s, the wine world has been undergoing another huge transformation in both the Old and New Worlds. • Where before there were only a handful of producers making high-quality wines, today there are thousands of producers throughout the world making excellent wines. © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.
Wine Today (continued) • Behind this explosion of quality producers lies a greater consumer interest in fine wines and the broader availability of state-of-theart technology and winemaking expertise. – New technology in both the vineyard and winery is widespread throughout the world. © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.
Globalization • In Europe, the lesser known regions of southern France, Italy, Spain, Greece, Hungary, and even the former countries of the Eastern Block are now making wines that are on par with those of some of the best traditional growing regions. • In the United States, New York, Washington, Oregon, Virginia, and Texas are now recognized wine producers. • Australia, New Zealand, Chile, Argentina, Hungary, and South Africa have also become known for producing wines of excellent value. © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.
Globalization (continued) • The worldwide focus on quality improvement has led to the increasing standardization of taste and styles. – There has also been a movement toward making softer, less tannic wines that require little bottle aging before they are consumed. • This global viewpoint and increased competition has resulted in consolidation of many winemaking companies. – While this globalization of the industry has led to better prices and more consistently good products, some feel it has also made wines from around the world more homogenous and uninteresting. © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.
Economic Cycles in the Wine Business • Wine, because it is made from grapes, is considered an agricultural product, and like many other agricultural products, it exhibits a boom and bust economic pattern. • Because of the time it takes to establish a new vineyard, get a crop from its vines, and then produce a wine from its grapes, it is very difficult for growers and vintners to respond to changing market conditions. © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.
Economic Cycles in the Wine Business (continued) • Boom and bust economic pattern – The popularity of a certain variety of wine will lead to scarcity of the grapes used to produce it, resulting in high prices. – At this point, many growers will plant the variety to take advantage of the higher prices resulting in overproduction and ultimately lower prices for their crop. – Another factor influencing the economics of winemaking is the fact that many wine consumers consider wine a “luxury item” and not a food. © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.
Summary • In the Old World there is now a movement to blend new technology with traditional grapes and winemaking techniques. • New World countries like Chile and Australia have invested heavily in new vineyards and wineries to take advantage of the export market. • While total wine consumption worldwide is falling, demand for premium wines in Europe, North America, and the Far East continues to grow. This has been matched by increased plantings throughout the world to meet the anticipated need. © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.
Summary (continued) • In the United States demand for California wines has been tempered by inexpensive imports from South America and Australia. • The wine business climate today is similar to one that existed during the early 1980 s when excess production of grapes and wine led to reasonably priced, high-quality wines that brought in many new consumers. • These new wine drinkers in turn helped to fuel new growth. © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.