- Slides: 24
+ CHAPTER 1: WHAT IS PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY?
+ ANTHROPOLOGY n Definition: the study of humankind n Four branches: n Cultural n Studies culture, or learned, transmitted behavior of living people n Archaeology n Studies culture of past societies by analyzing artifacts n Linguistic n Studies study construction and evolution of language n Physical/biological n Studies relationship of biology and culture
+ PHYSICAL/BIOLOGICAL ANTHROPOLOGY n Definition: the study of human evolution and biocultural variation n Use fossils, genetics, comparative anatomy and behavior n Hominids: ape and human ancestors n Hominins: ancestors of only humans n Genes influence biology but the environment does as well n Study: evolution of both extinct and living human relatives, including modern primates
+ PHYSICAL/BIOLOGICAL ANTHROPOLOGY n Why would anyone want to study bones and teeth? n They tell us about anatomy, diet, behavior, locomotion, and our place in nature n Questions we look to answer: n Who are we as a species? n What does it mean to be human? n Where did we come from? n How do we fit in with other living things?
+ SIX STEPS TO HUMANNESS n We are connected to other living things, but clearly we are unique n (1) bipedalism n (2) nonhoning canine n (3) material culture and tool use n (4) hunting n (5) speech n (6) domesticated food
+ SIX STEPS TO HUMANNESS n (1) bipedalism: n Physical difference of walking on two legs n Other primates can do this, but only for short times n Major adaptations in anatomy n Double curved spine n Wide pelvis n Arch in foot
+ SIX STEPS TO HUMANNESS n n (2) nonhoning canine n Loss of large canines n Loss of diastema n Because of tools to process food (3) material culture and tools n Completely depend on culture to survive n Manipulate environment n Tools date more than 2. 5 million years ago n Primates use tools, but only humans use stone tools
+ SIX STEPS TO HUMANNESS n n n (4) hunting n Social, organized n More than 1 million years ago n Before, we were scavengers (5) speech n Due to bipedalism n Hyoid and voice box position (6) domestication of food n 10, 000 years ago n Huge impact on biology and behavior
+ HOW WE KNOW n We use the scientific method n Difference between casual and scientific definitions: n Hypothesis: testable statement of the relationship between 2 variables n NOT “an educated guess” n Theory: best explanation possible, with validation and testable evidence n NOT just a story someone comes up with n Things are never proven and we always stay open-minded
+ SCIENCE n The scientific method involves:
+ HOW WE KNOW n You cannot prove something right in science n You can only disprove something n We say that evolution is a fact because there is so much evidence in support of it n Always keep open-minded because science is self-correcting n It is a fact and a theory
+ WHAT IS EVOLUTION n An easy definition is “change over time” n Does it mean we descended from monkeys? n Does it try to disprove the Bible? n Do you have to choose between science and religion?
+ WHAT IS EVOLUTION n An easy definition is “change over time” n Does it mean we descended from monkeys? n Does it try to disprove the Bible? n Do you have to choose between science and religion? NO!!!
+ EVOLUTION AND RELIGION n Why do people think they are in opposition? n One uses testable evidence, and the other uses faith n You can, and should, have both science and beliefs n When people say “evolution is just a theory” they are misusing the term theory n Evolution is not a straight line; it is a branching bush NO!
+ EVOLUTION n So, did a fish just decide to walk out of the water one day? n Did an ape just decide to come down from the trees and turn human?
+ EVOLUTION n It is a very gradual process that can take millions of years n The lobe-finned fish, or lungfish, is alive today It has bones in its fins and a pocket to store air n Can move from one body of water to another by walking on ground n They are precursor to tetrapods, or land-dwelling anmials n n There is not one ‘missing link’ are hundreds or thousands and we will study many in this class
+ DARWIN n Made his observations while traveling the world n Saw evidence in morphology and though humans had arboreal ancestor n Observing finches showed him adaptations n Observing overpopulation and competition led him to create theory of natural selection n Alfred Wallace also had the same idea at the same time…Darwin just beat him to publication
+ n The Scopes Monkey Trial in 1925 n http: //findcartoon. com/the-simpsons-season-17 -episode-21 -themonkey-suit/#. VQtrfin 4 vl. I
+ View n I want you to be able to see the world in a different way after this class n How are things connected? n How has evolution shaped living things? n How can we learn from the past to prepare for the future?
+ How did these guys get this way…?
+ Video n Keep this in mind during the video of deep sea creatures n Focus on how they are tailored to their environment through evolution
+ n Here are some questions to ponder: n What is the difference between the casual and scientific definitions of hypothesis and theory? n How has the human body changed because of bipedalism? n Are humans the only species to use tools? n How can someone study evolution and still keep his or her religious beliefs?