- Slides: 28
Chapter 1 – The World before 1600 Section Notes Video The Early Americas North American Cultures in the 1400 s African Cultures before 1500 Europe and Exploration Cultures Make Contact The World Before 1600 History Close-up Caravel Quick Facts Visual Summary: The World Before 1600 Maps The Bering Land Bridge Native American Culture Areas West and Central Africa, 1100– 1500 European Routes Columbian Exchange Images Artifacts Differences in Geography, Differences in Dwellings Bartolomé De Las Casas Mosque
Europe and Exploration The Main Idea Renaissance ideas changed Europeans’ medieval outlook and inspired them to explore the world. Reading Focus • What changes took place in Europe during the Middle Ages? • What happened during the Renaissance and the Protestant Reformation? • What did Europeans hope to find during the Age of Exploration?
The Middle Ages • The Middle Ages (AD 500 to 1500) began when the Roman Empire collapsed and created widespread lawlessness. Feudalism and the manorial system • Invaders occupied Spain and attacked other nations in central Europe. Vikings raided the northern coasts of Europe. • Feudal system developed when local nobles gave parcels of land from their large estates to vassals, or nobles of lower rank. The vassals pledged their loyalty and military service to the lords.
The Middle Ages The Crusades • Roman Catholic Pope Urban called on Christian kings and knights to recapture the Holy Land from Muslim Turks. Thousands answered his call to the holy wars, known as the Crusades. • The Muslims kept their lands, but the wars allowed Europeans to experience new lands and people and boosted trade between Europe and the Middle East. • Wealthy European merchants and artisans made up a growing middle class.
The Middle Ages New nation-states • Many nobles lost their fortunes in the Crusades; the new middle-class townspeople did not owe loyalty to a feudal lord. • Kings gave towns charters and collected taxes. England, France, and Spain began creating nation-states with strong central governments and homogeneous populations. • King John of England was forced to sign the Magna Carta, a document that established several principles of government: – No taxation without representation – The right to trial by a jury of one’s peers – These rights were gradually extended to ordinary people.
The Renaissance and the Protestant Reformation The Renaissance (rebirth) • In the 1300 s, a new era of learning began in the wealthy city-states of Italy. • Classics of Greece and Rome were studied, inspiring an intense creativity in the arts. 9 -17 -18
The Renaissance and the Protestant Reformation The Protestant Reformation • Many thought the Catholic clergy had become lazy and corrupt. They felt the church failed to provide proper spiritual guidance. • In 1517 a German monk, Martin Luther, nailed a list of arguments to a church door. This critique of the Catholic Church led to the Reformation movement. • Protestants: those who joined protests against the church Christianity in Spain • Islam was widespread in Iberian Peninsula. By 1100 s, Christian rulers wanted to take it back. Movement known as Reconquista. • Spanish Queen Isabella and King Ferdinand wanted Spain to be a Catholic kingdom. Ordered all Jews and Muslims to convert or leave Spain. Even Christians could be punished if they were suspected of defying the church.
The Age of Exploration Marco Polo • Polo went to China and stayed for 17 years and worked for Kublai Khan. • On the return trip, he went through Southeast Asia and India. • Marco took note of the people, places, and customs. • His book about his travels was very popular; it influenced later explorers. Prince Henry the Navigator • Set up a school and naval observatory to encourage exploration • He sponsored many expeditions. • Hoped to find a sea route to India to allow Portugal and other countries to trade directly with the East instead of going through Italian merchants
The Age of Exploration Better sailing technology • Prince Henry’s school developed the caravel, a sturdy and fast ship. • Improved navigational instruments: astrolabe and magnetic compass Looking for a sea route to Asia • Overland trip to Asia was long, difficult, and dangerous • Portuguese explorers led the way: Dias, da Gama, Cabral • Bartolomeu Dias was first to round the southern tip of Africa. • Vasco da Gama found the sea route to India. The new trade route helped Portugal become a world power. • The sea route discovery led to the decline of trans-Sahara trade and the African trading empires. • Pedro Álvars Cabral spotted the South American coast.
End of Section 4
Cultures Make Contact The Main Idea Columbus’s voyages to the Americas established contact with Native Americans and led to European colonies and an exchange of goods and ideas. Reading Focus • When did Vikings visit North America, and why was their stay brief? • Why were Columbus’s voyages to the Caribbean significant? • What impact did European exploration have on Native Americans? • What was the Columbian Exchange, and how did it affect both Europe and America?
Vikings Visit North America • Vikings were sea raiders who terrorized the coasts of western Europe. • In late 900 s, Vikings from Norway reached Greenland in North America. Erik the Red began settlements there in 986. • Erik’s son, Leif Eriksson, was heading to Greenland, but landed on eastern Canadian coast. He named it Vinland. • Leif tried to establish a colony in Vinland, but was not welcomed by the Native Americans. The Vikings left Canada three years later after warfare with the natives. • The Vikings never settled in Vinland again, but they continued to return for timber.
Columbus’s Voyages to the Caribbean Christopher Columbus • Believed that he could reach India by sailing west (did not know about American continents) • Convinced Queen Isabella to back his voyage (after several years) • Studied sailing and navigation techniques and read books about travel and geography The first voyage • Set sail on August 3, 1492 • Crew of 90 men, two caravels (the Niña and the Pinta) and his flagship, the Santa Maria • Reached land after 3 weeks (San Salvador in the Caribbean) • Called the local people “los Indios. ” They were Tainos. • Always thought he had explored part of Asia
Impact on Native Americans Colonies in Hispaniola • Christmas Town: The men Columbus had left to establish a town in Hispaniola behaved so wildly in his absence that they angered the Tainos. The Tainos killed all of them. • Isabela: The site had no fresh water and malaria-carrying mosquitoes. • While Columbus explored other islands, his brothers ran Isabela. Some Spanish officers rebelled against them. • Columbus and his brothers captured Indians to sell as slaves. Colonization turned into conquest. • He eventually lost his post as governor of Hispaniola in 1500.
Impact on Native Americans Native American Labor • Spaniards wanted to find gold and needed the labor to mine it. • In 1494 Columbus sent 26 Indians back to Spain, wanting them to be trained as interpreters. • He suggested starting a trade in Indian slaves. Also wanted to convert them to Christianity Trade in Indian Slaves • Queen Isabella didn’t want to enslave Indians. • Many Indians were then sent to Portuguese plantations instead. • Later the Portuguese, French, and Dutch ran Caribbean plantations and kept enslaved Indians as local labor. • Father Bartolomé de Las Casas dedicated his life to protecting the Indians from mistreatment.
The Columbian Exchange Interaction between Europeans and Native Americans—and eventually Africans—led to exchanges: – plants – animals – languages – technology – deadly germs, brought epidemics to the Americas Native American crops • Corn, beans, squash, tomatoes, chocolate, peanuts European contributions • Certain foods • Domestic animals, including horses • New technology, including guns • Smallpox and measles
Click on the window to start video