- Slides: 17
CHAPTER 1 TENSES The Simple Present Tense The Simple Past Tense The Simple Future Tense By : Sanjay Koriya (M. A. M. Ed. )
WHAT IS GRAMMAR? • • • The structure of a language The skeleton of a language The backbone of a language The rules of a language The basic principles of a language
Grammar • The scientific study of a language • A set of rules that tells how to speak and write correctly. • The rules in a language for changing the form of words and joining them into sentences. • The rules that governs the use of language
Tense • A set of verb forms that indicate when the action happens i. e. Past, Present, Future • OR • Verb form that shows when the action takes place.
English Grammar Tenses • Present Tense: – – Simple Present Tense Present progressive Tense Present Perfect Progressive Tense – – Simple Past Tense Past Progressive Tense Past Perfect Progressive – – Simple Future Tense Future Progressive Tense Future Prefect Tense Future Perfect Progressive • Past Tense: • Future Tense:
Simple Present Tense It expresses an action that happens: • Repeatedly • E. g. Rajesh often visits his family. • Regularly • E. g. I receive bank statement from my bank every month. • Habitually • E. g. Ashok drinks water before he goes to bed. • Everyday • E. g. Mohan goes to his office everyday.
SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE (STRUCTURE) SUB + Verb (s/es) + Complement 1. Jayesh washes his clothes himself. 2. We wash our clothes ourselves. • Question: – Does/Do + Sub + Verb + Complement? – Does Jayesh wash his clothes himself? • Negative: – Sub + don’t / doesn’t + Verb + Complement. – Jayesh doesn’t wash his clothes himself.
Final (s) or (es) • Verbs that take s/es become singular. • Verbs that are used for third person singular in simple present tense take final s/es. – Add `s’ with verbs having `e’. Make- Makes – Add `es’ with ch/sh/ss/x/z/o like Teach-Teaches – Add `ies ‘ with verbs ending in y, followed by consonant, removing `y’. like : Cry-Cries – Add `s’ with verbs ending in y, followed by vowel. Like Plays
Exercise • Fill in the blanks with the simple present tense of the verbs. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Winter ____ after autumn. (come) A dog_______. (bark) You ______tired. (look) Everyone ____ mistakes. (make) All _____ in a department store. (work) Monkeys ____ bananas. (like) He _______ very fast. (Type) We ____ english very well. (speak) The children _______ to school by bus. (go) Shyam ____ very sincerely. (learn)
Simple Past Tense Shows an action or activity that happened in the past or in a period of passed time. E. g. • Kartik played cricket yesterday. • I taught english last monday. • He came from Rajkot.
Simple Past Tense structure SUB + V (regular/Irregular) + Complement Manish washed her clothes. Naresh wrote his assignment. • Question: – Did + Sub + V (infinitive) + Complement? – Did Naresh write his assignments? • Negative: – Sub + did (not) + V (infinitive) + complement. – Naresh did not write his assignment.
Regular Verbs Such verbs which end in `ed’. These verbs are called regular verbs. - Add `ed’ in usually formed like jump-jumped – Add `d’ with verbs having `e’. Agree - Agreed – Add `ed ‘ with verbs that end in a consonant and have only a single vowel before the consonant. like : fan-fanned, grab-grabbed – Add `ed’ with verbs that end in y, followed by Consonant, Change the `Y’ to `I’ before adding `ed’. Like : bury – buried, carry – carried – Add `ed’ with verbs that end in y, followed by vowel, don’t change the `Y’ before adding `ed’. Like : play-played
Irregular Verbs - Such verbs which do not end in `ed’. These verbs are called irregular verbs. Break –broke Sell-sold Teach-taught sleep-slept Get-got Read-read Hear-heard Fly-flew Keep-Kept Cut-cut Buy-bought Bend-bent Shut-shut Give-gave
Exercise • Fill in the blanks with the simple past tense of the verbs. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. She ____ home alone. (go) A frog ______ into the well. (jump) He ______tired. (look) An apple _______ on his head. (drop) He _____ his old car and ______a new one. (sell/buy) Who ______ all the windows ? (shut) The party _______ at 8. 00 p. m. (begin) Nilesh ______ up the ladder carefully. (climp) Paresh _____ the highest grade in his English class. (get) The wind ______ throughout the night. (blow)
Simple Future Tense Shows an action or activity that have not happened yet, but are going to happen. E. g. • I shall finish the job tomorrow. • You will enjoy visiting New Zealand. • He will be back for dinner the next day.
Simple Future Tense structure SUB + V (shall/will) + Complement Manisha will wash her clothes. Naresh will write his assignment. • Question: – Will/Shall + Sub + V (infinitive) + Complement? – Will Naresh write his assignments? • Negative: – Sub + will/shall (not) + V (infinitive) + complement. – Naresh will not write his assignment.
Exercise • Fill in the blanks with the simple future tense of the verbs. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. You _____ fat if you eat too many desserts. ( grow) We _______ to the zoo after breakfast. (go) I _____ my bath before dinner. (take) She _______ us how to play chess. (teach) They ______ busy tomorrow. (be) It ______ soon. (rain) Kanu ____ James this evening. (visit) He _______ his exams. ( pass) Dad _______ us to the movies next Sunday. Paresh _______ lots to do on his farm. (find)