Chapter 1 Studying a Childs World Copyright 2014

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Chapter 1 Studying a Child’s World Copyright © 2014 Mc. Graw-Hill Education. All rights

Chapter 1 Studying a Child’s World Copyright © 2014 Mc. Graw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of Mc. Graw-Hill Education.

Learning Objectives § What is child development, and how has its study evolved? §

Learning Objectives § What is child development, and how has its study evolved? § What do developmental scientists study? § What kinds of influences make one child different from another? § What are six fundamental points about child development on which consensus has emerged? Copyright © 2014 Mc. Graw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of Mc. Graw-Hill Education. 1 -2

Early Approaches to Child Development § Child development: Scientific study of processes of change

Early Approaches to Child Development § Child development: Scientific study of processes of change and stability in children from conception through adolescence. § Early approaches § Baby biographies - Recorded the early development of a single child § Darwin’s journal - Developmental nature of infant behavior Copyright © 2014 Mc. Graw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of Mc. Graw-Hill Education. 1 -3

Developmental Psychology: A Science § Higher infant survival rates due to: § Discovery of

Developmental Psychology: A Science § Higher infant survival rates due to: § Discovery of germs § Development of vaccines § Child welfare laws were designed to protect children from long workdays. § New science of psychology suggested that people could better understand themselves by learning what had influenced them as children. Copyright © 2014 Mc. Graw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of Mc. Graw-Hill Education. 1 -4

Developmental Psychology: A Science § Establishment of research institutes § Emergence of child psychology

Developmental Psychology: A Science § Establishment of research institutes § Emergence of child psychology as a true science § Gesell’s studies on stages in motor development Copyright © 2014 Mc. Graw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of Mc. Graw-Hill Education. 1 -5

Studying the Life Span § Development considered to be from “womb to tomb” —Comprises

Studying the Life Span § Development considered to be from “womb to tomb” —Comprises the entire human life span § Development can be positive or negative. § Aspects of developmental psychology: § Timing of parenthood § Maternal employment § Marital satisfaction Copyright © 2014 Mc. Graw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of Mc. Graw-Hill Education. 1 -6

New Frontiers § Advances in technology § Study biological influences § Advances in brain

New Frontiers § Advances in technology § Study biological influences § Advances in brain imaging § Decode temperament § Scan for early signs of § Investigate neural emotions in infants basis of language § Analyze mothers’ and § Discover sources of babies’ communication logical thought Copyright © 2014 Mc. Graw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of Mc. Graw-Hill Education. 1 -7

Domains of Development § Physical development: Growth of body and brain § Biological and

Domains of Development § Physical development: Growth of body and brain § Biological and physiological patterns of change in sensory capacities, motor skills, and health § Cognitive development: Pattern of change in mental abilities § Psychosocial development: Pattern of change in emotions, personality, and social relationships Copyright © 2014 Mc. Graw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of Mc. Graw-Hill Education. 1 -8

Social Construction § Concept about the nature of reality based on societally shared perceptions

Social Construction § Concept about the nature of reality based on societally shared perceptions and assumptions. § Understanding of childhood can be viewed as social construction. Copyright © 2014 Mc. Graw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of Mc. Graw-Hill Education. 1 -9

Table 1. 1 Typical Major Developments in Five Periods of Child Development Copyright ©

Table 1. 1 Typical Major Developments in Five Periods of Child Development Copyright © 2014 Mc. Graw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of Mc. Graw-Hill Education. 1 -10

Influences on Development § Individual differences: Differences among children in: § Characteristics, influences, or

Influences on Development § Individual differences: Differences among children in: § Characteristics, influences, or developmental outcomes § Primary challenges in developmental psychology: § Identify the universal influences on development. § Apply influences to the understanding of individual differences in developmental trajectories. Copyright © 2014 Mc. Graw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of Mc. Graw-Hill Education. 1 -11

Influences on Development § Heredity: Inborn traits or characteristics from biological parents. § Environment:

Influences on Development § Heredity: Inborn traits or characteristics from biological parents. § Environment: Totality of nonhereditary, or experiential, influences on development. § Socialization - Child’s induction into the value system of the culture § Maturation: Unfolding of a universal, natural sequence of physical changes and behavior changes. Copyright © 2014 Mc. Graw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of Mc. Graw-Hill Education. 1 -12

Family § Nuclear family § Two-generational household unit § Consists of one or two

Family § Nuclear family § Two-generational household unit § Consists of one or two parents and children § Biological § Adopted § Stepchildren § Extended family § Multigenerational kinship network of: § Parents § Children § Other relatives § Sometimes living together in a household Copyright © 2014 Mc. Graw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of Mc. Graw-Hill Education. 1 -13

Culture and Race/Ethnicity § Culture: Society’s total way of life passed on from adults

Culture and Race/Ethnicity § Culture: Society’s total way of life passed on from adults to children § Customs, traditions, beliefs, values, language, and physical products—all learned behavior § Ethnic group: United by ancestry, race, religion, language, or national origin § Contributes to a sense of shared identity Copyright © 2014 Mc. Graw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of Mc. Graw-Hill Education. 1 -14

Ethnic and Cultural Patterns § Influence on the composition of a household § Economic

Ethnic and Cultural Patterns § Influence on the composition of a household § Economic and social resources § Adults § How they act toward one another § Foods they eat § Occupations they engage in § How they perceive the world Copyright © 2014 Mc. Graw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of Mc. Graw-Hill Education. 1 -15

Ethnic and Cultural Patterns § Children § Games they play § The way they

Ethnic and Cultural Patterns § Children § Games they play § The way they learn and how well they do in school § Immigrants acculturate by learning the aspects needed to get along in the dominant culture. § Language § Customs § Attitudes Copyright © 2014 Mc. Graw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of Mc. Graw-Hill Education. 1 -16

Ethnic and Cultural Patterns § While trying to preserve some of their cultural practices

Ethnic and Cultural Patterns § While trying to preserve some of their cultural practices and values § Ethnic gloss: Overgeneralization about an ethnic or cultural group that § Blurs or obscures variations within the group. § Overlaps with other such groups. Copyright © 2014 Mc. Graw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of Mc. Graw-Hill Education. 1 -17

Socioeconomic Status § Combination of economic and social factors that describe an individual or

Socioeconomic Status § Combination of economic and social factors that describe an individual or family. § Income, education, and occupation § Affects: § Developmental processes § Developmental outcomes § Risk factors: Conditions that increase the likelihood of a negative developmental outcome. Copyright © 2014 Mc. Graw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of Mc. Graw-Hill Education. 1 -18

Socioeconomic Status § Poor children § Frequent illnesses and lack access to health care

Socioeconomic Status § Poor children § Frequent illnesses and lack access to health care § Experience accidents, violence, and family conflict § Emotional or behavioral problems § Children in affluent families § Pressure to achieve § Left on their own by busy parents § High rates of: § Substance abuse § Anxiety, depression Copyright © 2014 Mc. Graw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of Mc. Graw-Hill Education. 1 -19

Figure 1. 3 - Child Poverty Rates, United States, 1959– 2010 Copyright © 2014

Figure 1. 3 - Child Poverty Rates, United States, 1959– 2010 Copyright © 2014 Mc. Graw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of Mc. Graw-Hill Education. 1 -20

Normative Influences § Characteristic of an event that occurs in a similar way for

Normative Influences § Characteristic of an event that occurs in a similar way for most people in a group. § Age-graded - Highly similar for people in a particular age group. § History-graded - Significant events that shape the behavior and attitudes of a historical generation. § Historical generation: Group of people strongly influenced by a major historical event during their formative period. § Cohort: Group of people born at about the same time. Copyright © 2014 Mc. Graw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of Mc. Graw-Hill Education. 1 -21

Nonnormative Influences § Unusual event that happens to a particular person. § Typical event

Nonnormative Influences § Unusual event that happens to a particular person. § Typical event that happens at an unusual time of life. § Largely beyond a person’s control Copyright © 2014 Mc. Graw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of Mc. Graw-Hill Education. 1 -22

Timing of Influences § Imprinting: Young animal forms an attachment to the first moving

Timing of Influences § Imprinting: Young animal forms an attachment to the first moving object it sees. § Happens during a critical period in early development § Instinctive form of learning § Is a result of predisposition toward learning § Critical period: Specific time when a given event or its absence has a profound and specific impact on development. Copyright © 2014 Mc. Graw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of Mc. Graw-Hill Education. 1 -23

Timing of Influences § Plasticity: Modifiability of performance § Sensitive periods: Times in development

Timing of Influences § Plasticity: Modifiability of performance § Sensitive periods: Times in development when a given event or its absence has a strong effect on development. Copyright © 2014 Mc. Graw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of Mc. Graw-Hill Education. 1 -24

An Emerging Consensus § All domains of development are interrelated. § Normal development includes

An Emerging Consensus § All domains of development are interrelated. § Normal development includes a wide range of individual differences. § Children help shape their development and influence others’ responses to them. § Historical and cultural contexts strongly influence development. Copyright © 2014 Mc. Graw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of Mc. Graw-Hill Education. 1 -25

An Emerging Consensus § Early experience is important, but children can be remarkably resilient.

An Emerging Consensus § Early experience is important, but children can be remarkably resilient. § Development in childhood affects development throughout the life span. Copyright © 2014 Mc. Graw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of Mc. Graw-Hill Education. 1 -26