- Slides: 14
Chapter 1: Introduction to Medical Terminology
MEDICAL TERMINOLOGY l The process of dividing medical words into component parts. l Analysis of words will make medical terminology easier to understand remember.
ORIGINS l. Word parts generally come from two language origins: l Greek l Latin
5 BASIC WORD PARTS l Root word l Suffix l Prefixes l Combining vowel l Combining form
ROOT WORD l l Root Word – foundation of the word, usually indicates the involved body part Examples: l cardi - l cephal – l gastr – l cyt – A medical term can have one or more root words. Ex. – cardi/o/thorac/ic = pertaining to heart and chest
SUFFIXES Word ending; usually indicates a procedure, condition, disorder or disease. l Read from the suffix backwards to the root word for the correct meaning. l Suffixes can be nouns or adjectives l All medical words have suffixes l Examples: -itis -ic -logy -lysis l
PREFIXES Word beginning; usually indicates location, time, or a number l Not all medical words have prefixes l Examples: l al prel hyperl subl
COMBINING VOWELS AND FORMS Combining Vowel l A vowel that links two word parts together l Usually an ‘o’ l Has no meaning of it’s own Combining Form – root word plus a combining vowel l Examples: l Hemat/o – l Cardi/o – l Gastr/o – l Oste/o –
RULES FOR USING COMBINING VOWELS 1. When the ending of the root word and the beginning of the suffix are both consonants, use a combining vowel. l Example 2. – hemat/o/logy When the ending of the root word is a consonant, and the beginning of the suffix is a vowel, do not use a combining vowel. l Example – gastr/itis
RULES FOR USING COMBINING VOWELS 3. A combining vowel is always used when two root words are joined. l Example – cardi/o/thorac/ic 4. A prefix does not require a combining vowel l Example – epi/gastr/ic
TAKING TERMS APART l Determine a medical word’s meaning by looking at the component pieces. Start at the suffix (all medical terms will have one) l Identify if there is a prefix (not all medical terms will have one) l Locate the root words (there may be more than one) l Identify the meaning of each word part as you separate them l
TAKING TERMS APART Remember! If you have any doubt about the correct meaning of a word, use a medical dictionary (appendix, internet) to double check the definition.
SPELLLING l In medicine, spelling is critical!!! l One wrong letter could mean an entirely different place on the body or test to be performed l Examples – ilium and ileum, PAC and PVC, etc…
TIME TO PRACTICE!!! 1. In order to break words into their component parts, you will need to become familiar with Appendix A in your textbook (starting on page 293). 2. Write the following words on your paper leaving 4 spaces between words: • Hyperthermia l Endocardium l Pneumonia • Gastroenteritis 3. Using the appendix, break each word into word parts by placing a line in between the breaks (a / pnea) 4. Then, define the meaning of each word part by using the definition in the appendix (a = no, not, without and -pnea = breathing) 5. Finally, write the definition of each medical word (apnea = without breathing or no breathing)