Chapter 1 Introduction to Medical Terminology EhrlichSchroederEhrlichSchroeder Medical

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Chapter 1 Introduction to Medical Terminology Ehrlich/Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 8 th

Chapter 1 Introduction to Medical Terminology Ehrlich/Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 8 th Edition. © 2018 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Word Parts Are the Key • Understanding word parts and how they work together

Word Parts Are the Key • Understanding word parts and how they work together to form medical terms will reinforce your word-building skills • Most word parts in medical terminology are of Latin origin • Others are of Greek origin, or other languages Ehrlich/Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 8 th Edition. © 2018 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Four Types of Word Parts • Word root o (Example, gastr: stomach) • Combining

Four Types of Word Parts • Word root o (Example, gastr: stomach) • Combining form o (Example, gastr/o) • Suffix o (Example, -itis) • Prefix o (Example, hyper-) Ehrlich/Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 8 th Edition. © 2018 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Word Parts Ehrlich/Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 8 th Edition. © 2018 Cengage.

Word Parts Ehrlich/Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 8 th Edition. © 2018 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Word Roots • • • Cannot stand alone Basic meaning of the word Usually

Word Roots • • • Cannot stand alone Basic meaning of the word Usually describe the part of the body that is involved Suffixes are placed at the end of the word root Prefixes are placed at the beginning of the word root Ehrlich/Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 8 th Edition. © 2018 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Combining Forms • • Include a vowel, usually an "o, " added to the

Combining Forms • • Include a vowel, usually an "o, " added to the end of a word root Aids in pronunciation In combining two word roots, a combining form is added to the first word root Combining form is used at the end of the second word root if the suffix begins with a vowel Ehrlich/Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 8 th Edition. © 2018 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Word Roots/Combining Forms Ehrlich/Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 8 th Edition. © 2018

Word Roots/Combining Forms Ehrlich/Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 8 th Edition. © 2018 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Suffixes (1 of 4) • Added at the end of a word to complete

Suffixes (1 of 4) • Added at the end of a word to complete the term • May indicate a procedure, condition, disorder, or disease Ehrlich/Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 8 th Edition. © 2018 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Suffixes (2 of 4) • A combining vowel is used when suffix begins with

Suffixes (2 of 4) • A combining vowel is used when suffix begins with a consonant • Example, neuroplasty o When joining neur/o (nerve) with suffix -plasty (surgical repair), combining vowel "o" is used because suffix begins with a consonant Ehrlich/Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 8 th Edition. © 2018 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Suffixes (3 of 4) • A combining vowel is not used when suffix begins

Suffixes (3 of 4) • A combining vowel is not used when suffix begins with a vowel • Example, tonsillitis o When joining tonsill (tonsils) with suffix -itis (inflammation), combining vowel "o" is not used because suffix begins with a vowel Ehrlich/Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 8 th Edition. © 2018 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Suffixes (4 of 4) Ehrlich/Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 8 th Edition. ©

Suffixes (4 of 4) Ehrlich/Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 8 th Edition. © 2018 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Suffixes as Noun Endings • Suffix may change a word root into a noun

Suffixes as Noun Endings • Suffix may change a word root into a noun o Noun: person, place, or thing o Example, cranium • crani: skull • -um: noun ending Ehrlich/Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 8 th Edition. © 2018 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Suffixes that Mean "Pertaining To" • Suffixes may change the meaning of word root

Suffixes that Mean "Pertaining To" • Suffixes may change the meaning of word root into an adjective o Adjective: defines or describes o Example, cardiac • cardi: heart • -ac: pertaining to Ehrlich/Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 8 th Edition. © 2018 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Suffixes that Mean "Abnormal Condition or Disease" • Suffixes may be used to change

Suffixes that Mean "Abnormal Condition or Disease" • Suffixes may be used to change the meaning of a wood root to describe an abnormal condition o Example, gastrosis • gastr: stomach • -osis: abnormal condition or disease Ehrlich/Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 8 th Edition. © 2018 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Suffixes Related to Pathology • Suffixes may be used to describe a disease •

Suffixes Related to Pathology • Suffixes may be used to describe a disease • Pathology: study of all aspects of disease • Examples: o -algia: pain and suffering o -itis: inflammation o -megaly: enlargement Ehrlich/Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 8 th Edition. © 2018 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Suffixes Related to Procedures • Suffix may be used to describe a procedure •

Suffixes Related to Procedures • Suffix may be used to describe a procedure • Examples: o -centesis: surgical puncture to remove fluid o -graphy: producing a picture or record o -scopy: visual examination Ehrlich/Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 8 th Edition. © 2018 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

The "Double R" Suffixes (1 of 5) • Suffixes that begin with two of

The "Double R" Suffixes (1 of 5) • Suffixes that begin with two of the letter "r" • Greek origin • Study them and learn the differences Ehrlich/Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 8 th Edition. © 2018 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

The "Double R" Suffixes (2 of 5) • -rrhage and -rrhagia: bleeding o Mostly

The "Double R" Suffixes (2 of 5) • -rrhage and -rrhagia: bleeding o Mostly used to describe sudden, severe bleeding o Example, • Hemorrhage: the loss of a large amount of blood in a short time • (hem/o: blood; -rrhage: abnormal excessive fluid discharge) Ehrlich/Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 8 th Edition. © 2018 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

The "Double R" Suffixes (3 of 5) • -rrhaphy: surgical suturing • Example: o

The "Double R" Suffixes (3 of 5) • -rrhaphy: surgical suturing • Example: o Myorrhaphy: the surgical suturing of a muscle wound o (my/o: muscle; -rrhaphy: surgical suturing) Ehrlich/Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 8 th Edition. © 2018 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

The "Double R" Suffixes (4 of 5) • -rrhea: flow or discharge of body

The "Double R" Suffixes (4 of 5) • -rrhea: flow or discharge of body fluids • Example: o Diarrhea: the frequent flow of loose or watery stools o (dia-: through; -rrhea: flow or discharge) Ehrlich/Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 8 th Edition. © 2018 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

The "Double R" Suffixes (5 of 5) • • -rrhexis: rupture Example, myorrhexis: the

The "Double R" Suffixes (5 of 5) • • -rrhexis: rupture Example, myorrhexis: the rupture of a muscle my/o: muscle; -rrhexis: rupture Ehrlich/Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 8 th Edition. © 2018 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Prefixes (1 of 2) • Added at the beginning of a word • Usually

Prefixes (1 of 2) • Added at the beginning of a word • Usually indicates location, time, or number • Examples, o Prenatal: before birth • (pre-: before; nat: birth; -al: pertaining to) Ehrlich/Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 8 th Edition. © 2018 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Prefixes (2 of 2) Ehrlich/Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 8 th Edition. ©

Prefixes (2 of 2) Ehrlich/Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 8 th Edition. © 2018 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Contrasting and Confusing Prefixes • May have similar spellings, but different meanings • Examples,

Contrasting and Confusing Prefixes • May have similar spellings, but different meanings • Examples, o ab-: away from o ad-: toward o inter-: between or among o intra-: within or inside Ehrlich/Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 8 th Edition. © 2018 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Determining Meanings on the Basis of the Word Parts • Knowing the meaning of

Determining Meanings on the Basis of the Word Parts • Knowing the meaning of the word parts often makes it possible to figure out the definition of an unfamiliar medical term. Ehrlich/Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 8 th Edition. © 2018 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Taking Terms Apart (1 of 4) • First, separate into word parts • Start

Taking Terms Apart (1 of 4) • First, separate into word parts • Start from the suffix and move toward the beginning, identifying the meaning of each part • Determine the context in which the term is used; some word parts may have more than one meaning Ehrlich/Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 8 th Edition. © 2018 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Taking Terms Apart (2 of 4) • Refer to medical dictionary or trusted online

Taking Terms Apart (2 of 4) • Refer to medical dictionary or trusted online source to double-check your definition • Be aware, not all terms are made up of word parts Ehrlich/Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 8 th Edition. © 2018 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Taking Terms Apart (3 of 4) • Example, • Otorhinolaryngology o Suffix -ology: the

Taking Terms Apart (3 of 4) • Example, • Otorhinolaryngology o Suffix -ology: the study of o Word root laryng: larynx or throat • Combining vowel is not used here because word root is joining a suffix that begins with a vowel o Combining form rhin/o: nose • Combining vowel is used here because word root rhin is joining another word root Ehrlich/Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 8 th Edition. © 2018 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Taking Terms Apart (4 of 4) Ehrlich/Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 8 th

Taking Terms Apart (4 of 4) Ehrlich/Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 8 th Edition. © 2018 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Guessing at Meanings • Attempt to decide the meaning of the word • Always

Guessing at Meanings • Attempt to decide the meaning of the word • Always double-check for accuracy because some terms have more than one meaning Ehrlich/Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 8 th Edition. © 2018 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Medical Dictionary Use • • • Assists with mastering correct use of medical terms

Medical Dictionary Use • • • Assists with mastering correct use of medical terms Guidelines: Review user guide, table of contents, and appendices Check the medical term alphabetically Check each letter, since similar spellings may have different meanings Check all the definitions listed Ehrlich/Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 8 th Edition. © 2018 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Searching for Definitions on the Internet • • Only use reliable Web sites Refer

Searching for Definitions on the Internet • • Only use reliable Web sites Refer to at least two Web sites Be aware of search terms Double-check spelling and meaning of the term for which you are searching Ehrlich/Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 8 th Edition. © 2018 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Pronunciation • • Commonly accepted pronunciation appears in parenthesis next to the term Pronounce

Pronunciation • • Commonly accepted pronunciation appears in parenthesis next to the term Pronounce a new word by saying it as it is spelled in the parentheses. Primary emphasis shown in uppercase boldface letters (eh-DEE-mah) Secondary emphasis shown in boldface lowercase letters (ah-pen-dih-SIGH-tis) Ehrlich/Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 8 th Edition. © 2018 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Spelling is Always Important • Changing just one or two letters may completely change

Spelling is Always Important • Changing just one or two letters may completely change the meaning of a word • Many medical terms are known as "look-alike, sound-alike" Ehrlich/Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 8 th Edition. © 2018 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Singular and Plural Endings • Unusual rules apply since many medical terms are of

Singular and Plural Endings • Unusual rules apply since many medical terms are of Latin or Greek origin • English endings have been adopted for some commonly used terms Ehrlich/Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 8 th Edition. © 2018 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Basic Medical Terms to Describe Diseases • Further study may be required in learning

Basic Medical Terms to Describe Diseases • Further study may be required in learning medical terms that describe diseases and disease conditions Ehrlich/Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 8 th Edition. © 2018 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Look-Alike, Sound-Alike Terms and Word Parts (1 of 4) • Many medical terms may

Look-Alike, Sound-Alike Terms and Word Parts (1 of 4) • Many medical terms may look and sound similar but their meanings are different • Study these terms carefully Ehrlich/Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 8 th Edition. © 2018 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Look-Alike, Sound-Alike Terms and Word Parts • • • (2 of 4) Example, arteri/o,

Look-Alike, Sound-Alike Terms and Word Parts • • • (2 of 4) Example, arteri/o, ather/o, arthr/o arteri/o: artery ather/o: plaque or fatty substance arthr/o: joint Ehrlich/Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 8 th Edition. © 2018 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Look-Alike, Sound-Alike Terms and Word Parts • • • (3 of 4) Example, -ectomy,

Look-Alike, Sound-Alike Terms and Word Parts • • • (3 of 4) Example, -ectomy, -ostomy, -otomy -ectomy: surgical removal -ostomy: surgical creation of an artificial opening to the body surface -otomy: cutting or a surgical incision Ehrlich/Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 8 th Edition. © 2018 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Look-Alike, Sound-Alike Terms and Word Parts (4 of 4) • Example, • ileum and

Look-Alike, Sound-Alike Terms and Word Parts (4 of 4) • Example, • ileum and ilium • ileum (ILL-ee-um): the last and longest portion of the small intestine. Memory aid: ileum is spelled with an "e" as in intestine. • ilium (ILL-ee-um): part of the hip bone. Memory aid: ilium is spelled with an "i " as in hip. Ehrlich/Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 8 th Edition. © 2018 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Using Abbreviations • • • Used frequently to record long and complex medical terms

Using Abbreviations • • • Used frequently to record long and complex medical terms May lead to confusion and errors Be familiar with the "Do Not Use" abbreviations of your facility Use only accepted abbreviations When in doubt, spell it out Ehrlich/Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 8 th Edition. © 2018 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.