- Slides: 62
Chapter 1 Criminalistics: An Introduction to Forensic Science
Welcome to Honors Forensics! Find your table according to the letter on your index card. You may sit in any seat at that table 1. On the lined side please write your… • • • Name (First and Last) Where you would like to sit (close to front, back, middle, not around people, a particular letter, etc) What you are most and least looking forward to in this class Fill out the “Student Information” Sheet on your Table 3. Look over the syllabus and take note on the materials needed for this class. 4. The Student Information page needs to be put in 2. your binder to go home and be signed by your parents. PLEASE DO THIS FOR HOMEWORK TONIGHT!
Syllabus and Rules of the Class Looking over the unit you will find we have quite a bit to cover…. What you will need to be successful: n Pens and pencils (mechanical pencils) n Spiral notebook or binder n Lined paper n Dividers
Procedures in the Classroom n RISK Turn in papers - Absent/Make up work n Extra Help n n After school Tuesdays-Thursdays, or by request n n Softball coach/SGA Advisor so please let me know ahead of time! Tests– Students can retake tests within ONE WEEK of return date as long as they have all of their homework in for that unit and they attend teacher remediation outside of Husky Help; students with a class average of 70% or below will be allowed to remediate in Husky Help. Retakes take a different form than the initial test. If the student is absent on the retest day, their absence must be excused and they must take the test the day they return. NO STATE EXAM!
The goal in this class… n Objectives: By the end of the course, students will have the ability to examine, interpret, and report evidence of a crime science similar to a forensic scientist.
What we will cover Unit 1 - History of Forensics and Crime Scene Analysis Unit 2 - Crime Scene Unit 7 – Hair, Fibers, and Paint Unit 3 – Questioned Documents Unit 9 - DNA & Serology Unit 4 – Fingerprints Unit 10 -Computer Forensics Unit 5 – Anthropology & Human Remains FINAL EXAM Unit 6 –Drugs &Toxicology Unit 8– Glass and Soils
Creating a Diversity Quilt With the index card from when you walked in…. please put your name you would like to be called on the front Decorate this card to represent who YOU are. Ex: Ms. Nock’s card
What do you know about Forensic Science? n Lets take a quiz (not graded ) Take your time and see what you may already know about forensics. You may work with a partner or in a group.
How does the mind truly work? n Test your skills by watching the following video http: //www. theinvisiblegorilla. com/videos. html
DEDUCTIVE vs. INDUCTIVE REASONING Section 1. 1
Problem Solving • Logic – The science of correct reasoning. • Reasoning – The drawing of inferences or conclusions from known or assumed facts. When solving a problem, one must understand the question, gather all pertinent facts, analyze the problem i. e. compare with previous problems (note similarities and differences), perhaps use pictures or formulas to solve the problem.
Inductive Reasoning, involves going from a series of specific cases to a general statement. The conclusion in an inductive argument is never guaranteed. Example: What is the next number in the sequence 6, 13, 20, 27, … There is more than one correct answer.
Inductive Reasoning • • • Here’s the sequence again 6, 13, 20, 27, … Look at the difference of each term. 13 – 6 = 7, 20 – 13 = 7, 27 – 20 = 7 Thus the next term is 34, because 34 – 27 = 7. However what if the sequence represents the dates. Then the next number could be 3 (31 days in a month). • The next number could be 4 (30 day month) • Or it could be 5 (29 day month – Feb. Leap year) • Or even 6 (28 day month – Feb. )
Deductive Reasoning • Deductive Reasoning – A type of logic in which one goes from a general statement to a specific instance. • The classic example All men are mortal. (major premise) Socrates is a man. (minor premise) Therefore, Socrates is mortal. (conclusion) The above is an example of a syllogism.
Deductive Reasoning • Syllogism: An argument composed of two statements or premises (the major and minor premises), followed by a conclusion. • For any given set of premises, if the conclusion is guaranteed, the arguments is said to be valid. • If the conclusion is not guaranteed (at least one instance in which the conclusion does not follow), the argument is said to be invalid. • BE CARFEUL, DO NOT CONFUSE TRUTH WITH VALIDITY!
Deductive Reasoning Examples: 1. All students eat pizza. Claire is a student at ASU. Therefore, Claire eats pizza. 2. All athletes work out in the gym. Barry Bonds is an athlete. Therefore, Barry Bonds works out in the gym.
Warm Up • What is the difference between deductive and inductive reasoning? • What is forensic science? • What fields of science would you need to become a forensic scientist? **TURN IN YOUR PINK SHEET TO THE BIN IF YOU HAVE IT SIGNED**
Crime Scene-Deadly Picnic • Using the worksheets, try to solve the crime using deductive reasoning. Try this individually (you can discuss with your neighbor after)
Checks Lab n Read directions carefully n n Explanation 1: First 4 checks Explanation 2: Next 4 (Total of 8)
Warm Up-Discuss with peers (but make sure you write it down!) • Based on the “Deadly Picnic”, what notes, observations, reasoning did you do in order to solve the crime? • What are the methods Forensic Scientists would need/do in the real world? • Get into your groups and finish your checks lab activity from yesterday • Turn in your pink sheet if you didn’t yesterday!
What is Forensic Science? n …the application of science to those criminal and civil laws that are enforced by police agencies in a criminal justice system.
Forensic Science is… n n Applied science Often called “criminalistics”
Course Topics & Perspective n n Forensic science is the application of scientific knowledge to questions of civil and criminal law. This course is a lab-based, hands-on course that will explore what forensic scientists do. You will learn modern forensic methods and use scientific methods to solve legal problems.
Forensic Science applies n n Chemistry Biology Physics Geology to civil and criminal law.
Forensic Science and the Law Forensic scientists use crime labs to help them examine evidence. Most crime labs will include several departments: Physical science – chemistry, physics, geology and biology Ballistics Document examination Toxicology Fingerprints
Forensic Science and the Law Forensic scientists may also consult with scientists who specialize in the following areas: Anthropology Entomology Psychiatry Palynology Odontology Polygraphy Engineering Voice print analysis Computer technology Pathology
Forensic Science and the Law The forensic scientist’s job is to: 1. Study the different types of evidence found at a crime scene. 2. Be ready to testify as an expert witness at a trial or hearing. 3. Perform scientific research and train others in the area of forensic science.
Forensic Science and the Law The forensic scientist must be methodical in his or her work. Forensic scientists solve problems using the following approach: 1. Observe the crime scene or questioned evidence and collect objective data. 2. Consider a hypothesis or possible solution to the problem based on observation, given direction to the scene. This step requires inductive reasoning, experience, and imagination.
History & Development of Forensic Science
When in Rome… l “Forensic” comes from the Latin word “forensis” meaning forum. l During the time of the Romans, a criminal charge meant presenting the case before the public. l Both the person accused of the crime & the accuser would give speeches based on their side of the story. l The individual with the best argument would determine the outcome of the case.
Sir Arthur Conan Doyle n Mystery author in late 1800’s n Popularized scientific crimedetection methods through his fictional character ‘Sherlock Holmes’.
Mathieu Orfila (1787 -1853) n “Father n Wrote of Toxicology” about the detection of poisons & their effects on animals.
Alphonse Bertillon (1853 -1914) “Father of Anthropometry” n Developed a system to distinguish one individual person from another based on certain body measurements. n
Francis Galton (1822 -1911) n “Father of Fingerprinting” n Developed fingerprinting as a way to uniquely identify individuals.
Leone Lattes (1887 -1954) n “Father n He of Bloodstain Identification” developed a procedure for determining the blood type (A, B, AB, or O) of a dried blood stain.
Calvin Goddard (1891 -1955) “Father of Ballistics” n Developed the technique to examine bullets, using a comparison microscope, to determine whether or not a particular gun fired the bullets. n
Albert Osborn (1858 -1946) n “Father of Document Examination” n His work led to the acceptance of documents as scientific evidence by the courts.
Walter Mc. Crone (1916 -2002) n “Father n He of Microscopic Forensics” developed & applied his microscope techniques to examine evidence in countless court cases. n Hair, Fibers, etc
Hans Gross (1847 -1915) n “Father n Wrote of Forensic Publications” the book on applying all the different science disciplines to the field of criminal investigation.
Edmond Locard (1877 -1966) • “Father of the Crime Lab” • In 1910, he started the 1 st crime lab in an attic of a police station in Paris, France. • With few tools, he quickly became known world-wide to forensic scientists & criminal investigators & eventually founded the Institute of Criminalistics in France. • His most important contribution was the “Locard’s Exchange Principle”
Locard’s Exchange Principle • “Every Contact Leaves a Trace. ” • He believed that every criminal can be connected to a crime by particles carried from the crime scene. • When a criminal comes in contact with an object or person, a cross-transfer of evidence occurs.
J. Edgar Hoover n “Father of the FBI” - Director of Federal Bureau of Investigation during the 1930’s n Hoover's leadership spanned 48 yrs & 8 presidential administrations. His reign covered Prohibition, the Great Depression, WWII, the Korean War, the Cold War, & the Vietnam War. n He organized a national laboratory to offer forensic services to all law enforcement agencies in the U. S. n VERY CONTROVERSIAL – He exceeded & abused his authority with unjustified investigations & illegal wiretaps based on political beliefs rather than suspected criminal activity – FBI directors are now limited to 10 -year terms
Applications of Forensic Science Identification of Criminals or Victims l Solving Mysteries l Past crimes (unsolved or wrongfully convicted) l Cause, Location, Time of Death l Paternity cases l Cyber crimes l Corporate Crimes (Enron) l Voice Analysis l
Applications of Forensic Science l l Application of DNA as evidence Prevention vs. Reaction Catastrophes & Wars l ID remains of victims (either civilian or soldiers) l ex. Holocaust or Katrina Military & International Forensics l Terrorism l The search for WMD’s l stockpiled or stored weapons from past wars
Bell Work for Thursday, January 27 th n n Who was known as the father of toxicology? Who created the first FBI police laboratory? Who was the father of document examination? Who was known as the father of anthropometry? What is anthropometry?
Court Cases n Read the three case studies and on a separate sheet of paper describe: n n n Who What Where What did this case contribute to the current laws in Forensic cases ( 1 paragraph description) Turn to bin
Bell Work n n n Who is the father of ballistics? What department studies insects? What department studies teeth? Review all your bell works for the quiz today!
When you are finished… n n Turn quiz into the bin Take out unit 1 study guide and continue to work on this until clue games arrive
Write the following statement “It was a fine day in April. The sun was out and spring was in the air. The birds were singing Mozart. The trees were leafing out twenty-dollar bills. So I left my house without my socks and headed downtown for some cotton candy and a guitar”
Crime Laboratories and their Organization in the US
The Modern Crime Lab n National Laboratories n State Laboratories n County/Municipal Laboratories
National Laboratories n Justice Department: FBI and DEA n Treasury Department: BATF n US Postal Service
Physical Evidence and the Law
Admissibility of Physical Evidence: Landmark Cases n n n Frye v. United States (1923), D. C. Circuit Court. Daubert v. Dow Pharmaceutical, Inc. (1993), US Supreme Court. Coppolino v. Florida (1968), Florida Appellate Court.
Frye v. United States The scientific principle must be sufficiently established to have gained general acceptance in the particular field in which it belongs.
Daubert v. Dow Pharmaceutical, Inc. The scientific principle must have general acceptability to those who should be familiar with its use in a laboratory.
Coppolino v. Florida The fact that a technique is new does not render the tests inadmissible, provided the methodology of the tests, in general, is well established.
Federal Rules of Evidence: Rule 702 If scientific, technical, or other specialized knowledge will assist the trier of fact to understand the evidence or to determine a fact in issue, a witness qualified as an expert by knowledge, skill, experience, training, or education may testify thereto in the form of an opinion or otherwise if: n n n The testimony is based on sufficient facts or data, The testimony is the product of reliable principles and methods, and The witness has applied the principles and methods reliably to the facts of the case.
Functions of the Forensic Scientist, or Criminalist Analysis of Physical Evidence Provision of expert testimony in a court of law. Training his staff in the recognition, collection, and preservation of evidence.
Limitations Placed on the Forensic Scientist n n Test availability – is there a standard test for the substance of interest? Test specificity – is the test free from interferences? Test sensitivity – what range of test results is allowed by the method? Test reliability – how reproducible are the of results of replicate tests?
Bell Work for Tuesday, February 4 n Pick up a scantron and put your n n n Name Subject: Unit 1 Forensics Quiz Date: February 4 Period: 1 Review a little before your quiz today n When you are finished with the quiz, start taking vocabulary and notes from Ch. 2 of the textbook