Chap 5 Muscular Fitness Chap 6 Flexibility Health

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Chap. 5 Muscular Fitness Chap. 6 Flexibility

Chap. 5 Muscular Fitness Chap. 6 Flexibility

Health Benefits • • • Increased bone density Increased HDL-C Increased muscle mass which

Health Benefits • • • Increased bone density Increased HDL-C Increased muscle mass which increases BMR Decreased risk of low-back syndrome Greater stability and balance Improved self-image

Muscular Strength • Muscular strength is the maximal force that can be generated by

Muscular Strength • Muscular strength is the maximal force that can be generated by a specific muscle or muscle group. Muscle strength is specific to – The muscle group – Type of contraction – Speed of contraction – Joint angle

Muscular Endurance • Muscular endurance is the ability of a muscle or muscle group

Muscular Endurance • Muscular endurance is the ability of a muscle or muscle group to develop repeated force over a period of time or to maintain a specific percentage of the maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) for a prolonged period of time.

Types of Muscle Contractions • Dynamic (a. k. a. isotonic) – Concentric • Shortening

Types of Muscle Contractions • Dynamic (a. k. a. isotonic) – Concentric • Shortening contractions • Moves mass against gravity – Eccentric • Lengthening • Resists gravity acting on a mass • Static – muscle does not change length

Gradation of Muscle Force • Increased frequency of discharge (rate coding) • Increased number

Gradation of Muscle Force • Increased frequency of discharge (rate coding) • Increased number of motor units recruited

Factors Determining Torque Produced by Muscle • Physiological Factors – Number of motor units

Factors Determining Torque Produced by Muscle • Physiological Factors – Number of motor units recruited – Types of fibers recruited – Length of muscle • Mechanical Factors – Length of lever arm – Angle of pull

Strength Testing Modes • Static • Dynamic – Constant resistance – Variable resistance •

Strength Testing Modes • Static • Dynamic – Constant resistance – Variable resistance • Isokinetic

Muscular Endurance Testing Modes • Static (% of 1 RM) • Dynamic – %

Muscular Endurance Testing Modes • Static (% of 1 RM) • Dynamic – % of 1 RM – % of body weight • Isokinetic

Fundamental Concepts of Progression • • Progressive overload Specificity Variation Periodization – Classic (linear)

Fundamental Concepts of Progression • • Progressive overload Specificity Variation Periodization – Classic (linear) model – Undulating (nonlinear) model

Interaction of Loading & Reps Power? ? Strength 1 2 4 6 8 Endurance

Interaction of Loading & Reps Power? ? Strength 1 2 4 6 8 Endurance 10 12 14 16. . Repetitions Maximum Heavy(100%) Moderate (70%) Resistance Light (50%)

Program Variables • • • Muscle action Loading Training Volume Exercise selection Exercise order

Program Variables • • • Muscle action Loading Training Volume Exercise selection Exercise order Rest Periods • Velocity of Muscle Action • Frequency • Free weights vs machines

Muscle Action • Novice: Concentric and eccentric • Intermediate: Concentric and eccentric • Advanced:

Muscle Action • Novice: Concentric and eccentric • Intermediate: Concentric and eccentric • Advanced: Concentric and eccentric

Loading • Novice & Intermediate – 60 -70% of 1 RM or 8 -12

Loading • Novice & Intermediate – 60 -70% of 1 RM or 8 -12 RM – 2 -10% increase for RM loading • Advanced – 80 -100% of 1 RM or 1 -5 RM – Periodized schedule – 2 -10% increase for RM loading

Training Volume • • Novice: 1 -3 sets Intermediate: 2 -3 sets Advanced: 3

Training Volume • • Novice: 1 -3 sets Intermediate: 2 -3 sets Advanced: 3 -6 sets Training volume increase should be no more than 10% every 2 -4 weeks

Exercise Selection • Both single and multi-joint exercises should be used • Less risk

Exercise Selection • Both single and multi-joint exercises should be used • Less risk of injury with single joint exercises • More transfer to performance with multijoint exercise

Exercise Order • When training all major muscle groups in a single session –

Exercise Order • When training all major muscle groups in a single session – Large muscles before small – Multi-joint before single • Split Routine – Large before small – Multi-joint before single – Rotation of agonist/antagonist

Rest Periods • For all levels – For multi-joint, high resistance and large muscle

Rest Periods • For all levels – For multi-joint, high resistance and large muscle exercises: 2 -3 minutes – For single-joint, small muscle exercises or lower resistance: 1 -2 minutes • May alternate muscle groups with little or now rest in order to shorten total exercise time

Velocity of Muscle Action • Novice – Slow (2 -4 sec for each phase)

Velocity of Muscle Action • Novice – Slow (2 -4 sec for each phase) – Moderate (1 -2 sec for each phase) • Intermediate should use moderate velocities • Advanced should use slow to fast (<1 sec for each phase)

Frequency • Novice should train the entire body 2 -3 days per week. •

Frequency • Novice should train the entire body 2 -3 days per week. • Intermediate – 2 -3 days per week for total body – 3 -4 days per week such that each muscle group is trained 1 -2 days per week • Advanced – 4 -6 days per week with 2 -3 days per week for each major muscle group – Multiple sessions per day may be used if recovery is optimized

Factors Affecting the Ability to Hypertrophy Muscle • • Muscle Type Genetics Hormones Nutrition

Factors Affecting the Ability to Hypertrophy Muscle • • Muscle Type Genetics Hormones Nutrition – General nutrition – Supplementation • Training

MODEL OF NEURAL AND HYPERTROPHIC FACTORS

MODEL OF NEURAL AND HYPERTROPHIC FACTORS

Training for Hypertrophy • Loading – 70 -100% of 1 RM – 1 -12

Training for Hypertrophy • Loading – 70 -100% of 1 RM – 1 -12 Reps with majority 6 -12 • 3 -6 sets • Periodized • Rest periods of 1 -2 minutes except in heavy loading of core exercises when 2 -3 minutes of rest are recommended

Training for Muscular Power • Power = Work/Time • Power is optimized using more

Training for Muscular Power • Power = Work/Time • Power is optimized using more explosive movements on top of a good strength base • Light to moderate loading (30 -60% 1 RM) performed at an explosive velocity

Common Causes of Back Pain or Syndromes • With age, the disk degenerates and

Common Causes of Back Pain or Syndromes • With age, the disk degenerates and the space for the nerve root is reduced. • Bone spurs and arthritis can impinge on the nerves and cause pain.

Exercise movements that cause full lumbar flexion and extension should be avoided, especially the

Exercise movements that cause full lumbar flexion and extension should be avoided, especially the older you get.

What is Good Posture? • Minimal stress on the vertebral joints and supporting ligaments.

What is Good Posture? • Minimal stress on the vertebral joints and supporting ligaments. • Body segments balanced around the center of gravity.

Lumbar Lordosis (Sway Back) Weak abdominals and short hip flexors tip the pelvis forward

Lumbar Lordosis (Sway Back) Weak abdominals and short hip flexors tip the pelvis forward and increase back strain.

Proper Posture (Neutral Pelvis) Strong abdominals and longer hip flexors keep the pelvis neutral.

Proper Posture (Neutral Pelvis) Strong abdominals and longer hip flexors keep the pelvis neutral.