Challenges of Urbanization Challenges of Immigration Urbanization What

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Challenges of Urbanization

Challenges of Urbanization

Challenges of Immigration & Urbanization What issues did many new immigrants & city dwellers

Challenges of Immigration & Urbanization What issues did many new immigrants & city dwellers face at the turn of the century?

I. Immigration to the US • Millions immigrate through the “golden door” A. Europeans

I. Immigration to the US • Millions immigrate through the “golden door” A. Europeans 1. 20 million immigrate from 1870 -1920 2. Most now coming from Ireland, East, South, & Central Euro. , looking for freedom, land & work B. Chinese & Japanese 1. About 500, 000 immigrate from 1870 -1920 2. Chinese: escaping political turmoil 3. Japanese: higher wages in US 4. Page Act (1875) & Chinese Exclusion Act (1882)limit immigration C. Mexicans 1. About 700, 000 immigrate from 1870 -1920 2. Escape political turmoil (Villa & Zapata) 3. Looking for econ. opportunity. – many relegated to agricultural (field) work

On the East coast immigrants went through… Ellis Island, NY

On the East coast immigrants went through… Ellis Island, NY

II. Point of Entry: Ellis Island (N. Y. ) A. Once Euro. immigrants arrived

II. Point of Entry: Ellis Island (N. Y. ) A. Once Euro. immigrants arrived (by ship) they went through the following process: 1) Medical Examination: check for contagious or debilitating diseases 2) Examination of legal documents: make sure they have no criminal record, have some $, and want to work B. Whole process took about 5 -6 hours, 17, 000 pass through per day. C. About 20% detained for a day & 2% rejected

Ellis Island, March 2015

Ellis Island, March 2015

On the west coast immigrants went through… Angel Island Immigration Station barracks

On the west coast immigrants went through… Angel Island Immigration Station barracks

III. Point of Entry: Angel Island (San Francisco, CA) A. Immigrants from Asia went

III. Point of Entry: Angel Island (San Francisco, CA) A. Immigrants from Asia went through Angel Island (SF) B. Congress passed the Page Act (1875, bans Chinese women) & Chinese Exclusion Act (1882, bans ALL Chinese laborers ) C. Asian immigrants were subject to: 1. Medical exams (quarantined for weeks if anything was suspicious) 2. Questioned harshly, held for days, months, even years

1872 Thomas Nast political cartoon. Answer in complete sentences in your notebooks 1. Who

1872 Thomas Nast political cartoon. Answer in complete sentences in your notebooks 1. Who is the woman & who is she comforting/ protecting? 2. Who do the men in the background represent? 3. What is the message of this poster? 4. Who would agree with this message?

1886 soap advert. : Answer in complete sentences in your notebooks 1. What federal

1886 soap advert. : Answer in complete sentences in your notebooks 1. What federal law is this supporting? 2. What is the message of this poster? 3. Who would agree with this message?

IV. Backlash to immigration A. Backlash against immigrants (Jews, Poles, Italians, and Irish, in

IV. Backlash to immigration A. Backlash against immigrants (Jews, Poles, Italians, and Irish, in East; Chinese/Japanese/Mexicans in West) 1. Only White Anglo-Saxon Protestants (WASPs) seen as true Americans 2. believed that imm. lower wages, overcrowding, loss of “American” culture B. Nativist organizations form: want to restrict immigration (get rid of the “wrong” type of immigrant) C. Rebirth of the KKK 1. Ku Klux Klan, started as anti-black, gains momentum due to adoption of antiimmigration stance

V. Assimilation Americanization Movement A. As immigration increases, a nationwide movement called Americanization gains

V. Assimilation Americanization Movement A. As immigration increases, a nationwide movement called Americanization gains popularity 1. Goal: assimilate immigrants into the dominant “American” culture 2. Obstacle: Since many immigrants live in ethnic enclaves (segregated neighborhoods) most groups keep own languages & customs Mulberry St. , Little Italy, NY City

Political Cartoon, 1896 1. What has the immigrant been labeled? 2. How is Uncle

Political Cartoon, 1896 1. What has the immigrant been labeled? 2. How is Uncle Sam responding to the immigrant? 3. What is the message of this poster? 4. Who would agree with this message?

Political Cartoon, 1896 1. What is the message of this poster? 2. Who would

Political Cartoon, 1896 1. What is the message of this poster? 2. Who would agree with this message?

VI. Challenges of Urbanization A. Tenement housing (overcrowded apts. ) is built 1. Tenements

VI. Challenges of Urbanization A. Tenement housing (overcrowded apts. ) is built 1. Tenements lacked clean water, sanitation and electricity (more disease & fires) B. Rampant crime in cities, many areas controlled by gangs

Gangs of New York 1. How were many immigrants treated when they came to

Gangs of New York 1. How were many immigrants treated when they came to America? http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=ns-qtoxn. AS 8

VII. Social Gospel Movement: Attempt at fixing urban and social problems A. Preached salvation

VII. Social Gospel Movement: Attempt at fixing urban and social problems A. Preached salvation by helping the poor B. Jacob Riis publishes How the Other Half Lives which showed horrible urban and tenement life C. Reformers establish settlement houses (places to help the poor) 1. Most well known: Hull House in Chicago founded by Jane Addams