Challenges of the 21 st Century Pamela Hammond

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Challenges of the 21 st Century Pamela Hammond Brantley Co HS Nahunta, GA 2008

Challenges of the 21 st Century Pamela Hammond Brantley Co HS Nahunta, GA 2008 -2009

Population Growth • Demographic Transition – Rural to Urban – Urban to Suburban •

Population Growth • Demographic Transition – Rural to Urban – Urban to Suburban • Industrialized societies – Lower fertility rates (fewer children born) • Women in work force • Families delaying starting a family – Graying of society • Developing nations – Population growth “out of control” • Lack of education • Lack of birth control • Lopsided—more males than females – Some improvements being made

Economic Inequality • Improvements in transportation and communication combined with improvements in industrial and

Economic Inequality • Improvements in transportation and communication combined with improvements in industrial and agriculture have been beneficial – Most of the world still lives in poverty and these improvements have not affected them • Gap between rich and poor nations just as large as in 1945

Internal Migration • Developing countries seeing shift between rural and urban – Infrastructure cannot

Internal Migration • Developing countries seeing shift between rural and urban – Infrastructure cannot support – Housing unavailable – Jobs difficult to find without education

Global Migration • Millions leave developing world and emigrate to developed nations – Creates

Global Migration • Millions leave developing world and emigrate to developed nations – Creates racial and ethnic problems – Developed nations worried about their cultural identity • France—great influx of non-Christians – Immigrants hold on to traditional values of early marriage and large families • Places burden on some societies • Immigrant groups growing larger than native groups in some countries – US: fastest growing ethnic group --Hispanics

French cultural identity challenged

French cultural identity challenged

Global Migration

Global Migration

New Technologies & the World Economy • New technologies have improved productivity – Computers,

New Technologies & the World Economy • New technologies have improved productivity – Computers, robots, mechanization in general, has reduced labor requirement – Improved information (Internet, fax machines, conference calls) has made markets more efficient • New issues arise: “work smarter, not harder” – Demand for unskilled workers declined – Education, more than ever, is important

Transnational Corporations • Businesses owned in one country but operate across national borders –

Transnational Corporations • Businesses owned in one country but operate across national borders – In operation since 18 th century joint-stock companies – East India Companies • Multinational Corporations – Companies with multinational ownership and management – Daimler Chrysler (now in bankruptcy) – Ford • Easier to outsource production • Easier to relocate if pollution laws are too strict • Bottom-line more important than workers rights or environment

Environmental Impact • Deforestation & Pollution have become major concerns – – Depletion of

Environmental Impact • Deforestation & Pollution have become major concerns – – Depletion of ozone global warming? ? Nuclear and industrial wastes cancers Erosion may lead to agriculture crises Prince’s Rainforest campaign (Launched 5/5/09) • Clean Air & Water Acts, pollution laws • Wind power windmills • Hydroelectric power • Hybrid cars Anti-

Rainforest erosion

Rainforest erosion

Pollution

Pollution

Global Economic Trends • Rapid Integration of world trade and markets – Interconnected economies

Global Economic Trends • Rapid Integration of world trade and markets – Interconnected economies what effects one, effects others (Current world-wide recession) – Free trade agreements • • North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) European Community Mercosur (Argentina, Brazil, Uruguay, Paraguay) World Trade Organization (WTO) encourages the reduction of trade barriers & enforces trade agreements – Common currency (Euro)

Member nations of the WTO

Member nations of the WTO

Cap from Bangladesh Shirt from Mexico Backpack from China Soccer ball from Pakistan But

Cap from Bangladesh Shirt from Mexico Backpack from China Soccer ball from Pakistan But what does globalization have to do with me? Jeans from Malaysia Video game from Japan Sneakers from Indonesia

Globalization and Democracy • By turn of 21 st century 140 countries regularly held

Globalization and Democracy • By turn of 21 st century 140 countries regularly held elections – 125 freedom of expression • Biggest gains in Eastern Europe following the fall of communism • Asian democracies have been stable • African democracies have struggled – Nigeria voting irregularities, -Christian violence – Frequent military coups • Sudan • Rwanda Muslim – Zimbabwe & Kenya currently dealing with election woes – South Africa great success story

War on Terror • Regime changes in Afghanistan & Iraq – Current war •

War on Terror • Regime changes in Afghanistan & Iraq – Current war • Response to September 11, 2001 • Search for Osama bin Laden & al-Qaeda – Afghanistan Taliban removed • Resurgence – Iraq search for WMD • None found • Saddam Husain overthrown, tried, executed • As of May 5, 2009 war may erupt between Pakistan and Taliban (Afghanistan)

Universal Rights & Values • US Declaration of Independence, US Constitution/Bill of Rights, and

Universal Rights & Values • US Declaration of Independence, US Constitution/Bill of Rights, and French Declaration of the Rights of Man set the example for the world – Anti-slavery campaigns – Suffrage movements for all citizens (including women) • United Nations – Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 1948 » “a common standard of achievement for all peoples and nations” » Freedom of movement, assembly, and thought » Right to life, liberty, and security to person » Right to impartial trials, education, employment and leisure – International consensus against racism » Racism is learned, education extremely important • Nongovernmental Organizations (NGOs) – Promote human rights – Amnesty International

Global Culture • Trade, travel, migration, and mass communication has led to a common

Global Culture • Trade, travel, migration, and mass communication has led to a common culture world wide – – Transistor radios, TV…. Internet, MTV, DVDs… Blue jeans and t-shirts Fast food junkies Cell phone and I-pods in the ear • Cultural Imperialism – Traditional cultures see western culture as a threat to their way of life • Major argument of Islamic Fundamentalists – Global Elite • Prevalence of English language • Standardization of science & technology • Universities – Structure of curriculum similar – International students world wide

What does the future hold for you?

What does the future hold for you?