Ch 8 Periodic Properties of the Elements Multielectron

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Ch. 8 Periodic Properties of the Elements Multielectron Atoms • • “Hydrogen-like” orbitals are

Ch. 8 Periodic Properties of the Elements Multielectron Atoms • • “Hydrogen-like” orbitals are used for all atoms Energy levels are affected by other electrons – Coulomb’s Law—electrostatic repulsion of like charges is proportional to the amount of charge, and inversely proportional to the distance between them (see text for eqn) – Shielding—screening of one electron from the nuclear charge by other electrons around the same atom – Penetration—probability of the electron to be close to the nucleus – Effective nuclear charge (Zeff)—the amount of nuclear charge an electron experiences after taking shielding into account – Degenerate—of equal energy

Order of Filling Subshells

Order of Filling Subshells

Electron Spin and the Pauli Exclusion Principle • Electrons have intrinisic angular momentum --

Electron Spin and the Pauli Exclusion Principle • Electrons have intrinisic angular momentum -- “spin” -- ms – Possible values: ms = +1/2 and -1/2 (only two possible values) • Pauli Exclusion Principle: – No two electrons in an atom can have identical values of all 4 quantum numbers -- maximum of 2 electrons per orbital! – A single orbital can hold a “pair” of electrons with opposite “spins” – e. g. the 3 rd shell (n = 3) can hold a maximum of 18 electrons: n=3 l = 0 1 2 subshell 3 s 3 p 3 d # orbitals 1 3 5 # electrons 2 6 10 = 18 total • A single electron in an orbital is called “unpaired” • Atoms with 1 or more unpaired electrons are paramagnetic, otherwise they are diamagnetic

Electronic Configurations • The Aufbau Principle -- Order of Filling Subshells – Atomic #

Electronic Configurations • The Aufbau Principle -- Order of Filling Subshells – Atomic # = # of protons = # electrons (in neutral atom) – Add electrons to atomic orbitals, two per orbital, in the general order of increasing principle quantum number n, for example: # Atom Configuration 1 H 1 s 1 2 He 1 s 2 3 Li 1 s 22 s 1 4 Be 1 s 22 s 2 5 B 1 s 22 p 1 6 C 1 s 22 p 2 7 N 1 s 22 p 3 8 O 1 s 22 p 4 9 F 1 s 22 p 5 10 Ne 1 s 22 p 6 11 Na 1 s 22 p 63 s 1

Hund’s Rule • Maximum number of unpaired electrons in orbitals of equal energy Orbital

Hund’s Rule • Maximum number of unpaired electrons in orbitals of equal energy Orbital diagrams: C __ __ __ 1 s 2 s 2 p N __ __ __ 1 s 2 s 2 p O __ __ __ 1 s 2 s 2 p

Relationship to Periodic Table e. g. complete electronic configuration of Ge (#32, group IV)

Relationship to Periodic Table e. g. complete electronic configuration of Ge (#32, group IV) Ge 1 s 22 p 63 s 23 p 64 s 23 d 104 p 2 or, Ge 1 s 22 p 63 s 23 p 63 d 104 s 24 p 2 (by values of n) • Short-hand notation -- show preceding inert gas config. – Ge [Ar]4 s 23 d 104 p 2 where [Ar] = 1 s 22 p 63 s 23 p 6

Valence Shell Configurations • valence shell -- largest value of n (e. g. for

Valence Shell Configurations • valence shell -- largest value of n (e. g. for Ge, n = 4) plus any partially filled subshells Ge 4 s 24 p 2 (valence shell electron configuration) Ge __ __ (valence shell orbital diagram) 4 s 4 p Elements in same group have same valence shell e– configurations e. g. group V: N P As Sb Bi 2 s 22 p 3 3 s 23 p 3 4 s 24 p 3 5 s 25 p 3 6 s 26 p 3

Sample Questions • Write the complete electron configuration of gallium. Answer: • Write the

Sample Questions • Write the complete electron configuration of gallium. Answer: • Write the short-hand electron configuration for zirconium. Answer: • Write the orbital diagram for the valence shell of tellurium. Answer:

Sample Question How many unpaired electrons does a ruthenium(II) ion, Ru 2+, have? Show

Sample Question How many unpaired electrons does a ruthenium(II) ion, Ru 2+, have? Show an appropriate orbital diagram to explain your answer. Is the atom paramagnetic or diamagnetic?

Variation of Atomic Properties Atomic Size (atomic radius, expressed in pm -- picometers) e.

Variation of Atomic Properties Atomic Size (atomic radius, expressed in pm -- picometers) e. g. group 1 metals: (10– 12 m!) Atom Radius in pm Valence Shell Li 152 2 s 1 Na 186 3 s 1 K 227 4 s 1 Cs 248 5 s 1 e. g. some elements in 2 nd period: Atom B C N O F radius 88 77 70 66 64 e– config 2 p 1 2 p 2 2 p 3 2 p 4 2 p 5

General Trend in Atomic Size Relative sizes of ions cations are smaller than parent

General Trend in Atomic Size Relative sizes of ions cations are smaller than parent atoms e. g. Na 186 pm 2 s 22 p 63 s 1 Na+ 95 pm 2 s 22 p 6 anions are larger than parent atoms e. g. Cl 99 pm 3 s 23 p 5 Cl– 181 pm 3 s 23 p 6

Ionization Energy I. E. = energy required to remove an electron from an atom

Ionization Energy I. E. = energy required to remove an electron from an atom or ion (always endothermic, positive values) e. g. Li(g) --> Li+(g) + e– I. E. = 520 k. J/mole Exceptions: special stability of filled subshells, and of half-filled subshells

Electron Affinity • E. A. = energy released when an electron is added to

Electron Affinity • E. A. = energy released when an electron is added to an atom or ion (usually exothermic, negative EA values) e. g. Cl(g) + e– --> Cl–(g) E. A. = -348 k. J/mol • The general trends in all these properties indicate that there is a special stability associated with filled-shell configurations. • Atoms tend to gain or lose an electron or two in order to achieve a stable “inert gas configuration” -- many important consequences of this in chemical bonding.

Types of Elements Metals: Shiny, malleable, ductile solids with high mp and bp Good

Types of Elements Metals: Shiny, malleable, ductile solids with high mp and bp Good electrical conductors Metal character increases to lower left of periodic table Nonmetals: Gases, liquids, or low-melting solids Non-conductors of electricity Diatomic elements: H 2, O 2, N 2, F 2, Cl 2, Br 2, I 2 Metalloids: Intermediate properties, often semiconductors

Sample Questions Of the following atoms, circle the one with the highest electron affinity.

Sample Questions Of the following atoms, circle the one with the highest electron affinity. K Cl P Br Na Write a balanced chemical equation that corresponds to the electron affinity of the element that you selected above.

Alkali Metals • They want to be +1! • Easily oxidized, low EA, low

Alkali Metals • They want to be +1! • Easily oxidized, low EA, low IE. • Density increases moving down the group. (mass rises faster than atomic radius) • Reactions – With halogens to form salts, e. g. 2 Na(s) + Cl 2(g) 2 Na. Cl(s) – With water to make base + hydrogen, e. g. 2 K(s) + 2 H 2 O(l) 2 K+(aq) + 2 OH–(aq) + H 2(g) • Reactions are more vigorous as you get lower in the group (why? ) http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=9 b. Ah. CHed. VB 4&feature=relmfu http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=rt. Na. EFXOd. Ac&feature=relmfu

Halogens • They want to be – 1! • Easily reduced, high EA, high

Halogens • They want to be – 1! • Easily reduced, high EA, high IE. • Density increases moving down the group. (mass rises faster than atomic radius) • Reactions – With metals to form metal halides, e. g. 2 Al(s) + 3 Cl 2(g) 2 Al. Cl 3(s) – With hydrogen to form hydrogen halides (binary acids!), e. g. H 2(g) + I 2(s) 2 HI(g) – With other halogens to form interhalogen compounds, e. g. Br 2(l) + F 2(g) 2 Br. F(g) • http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=F 4 IC_B 9 i 4 Sg

Noble Gases • Closed-shell electron configuration; very unreactive! • Used for lights, airtanks for

Noble Gases • Closed-shell electron configuration; very unreactive! • Used for lights, airtanks for divers, cryogens • Few reactions! Fluorides, oxides can be made under severe conditions. • • Helium--helios (sun) Krypton--kryptos (hidden) Neon--neos (new) Xeno--xenos (stranger)