Cellular Response Adaptive Non Adaptive Disturbances of growth

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Cellular Response Adaptive Non Adaptive Disturbances of growth Degeneration Inflammation and repair Neoplasia Immune

Cellular Response Adaptive Non Adaptive Disturbances of growth Degeneration Inflammation and repair Neoplasia Immune response Dysplasia Necrosis

INFLAMMATION

INFLAMMATION

Definition -it’s a body response against injury , it’s � a first line of

Definition -it’s a body response against injury , it’s � a first line of defense. -Protective adaptive tissue response to injury. �

Causes of Inflammation: By injurious agents called irritants. It are different types: 1 -Living

Causes of Inflammation: By injurious agents called irritants. It are different types: 1 -Living Irritants: bacteria, virus, parasites. 2 -Non Living Irritants: a-Chemical: Acids, alkalis and poisons. b-Physical: Heat, cold, ionizing radiation. c-Mechanical: Trauma, cut. 3 -Antigens: cause allergic inflammation.

Mechanism: 1. Vascular response 2. Cellular response 1. Vascular Response A-Vasodilatations of arterioles in

Mechanism: 1. Vascular response 2. Cellular response 1. Vascular Response A-Vasodilatations of arterioles in local blood flow redness and hotness = (hypraemia). B-Increase in capillary permeability leakage of fluid local swelling. C-Release of mediators pain.

1 - inflammatory reaction “dilated blood vessels” The widening of blood vessels resulting from

1 - inflammatory reaction “dilated blood vessels” The widening of blood vessels resulting from relaxation of smooth muscle cells in vessel walls

Mechanism: 2. Cellular Response: -Margination of WBCs. -Emigration (Diapedesis). -Chemotaxis. -Phagocytosis.

Mechanism: 2. Cellular Response: -Margination of WBCs. -Emigration (Diapedesis). -Chemotaxis. -Phagocytosis.

Cellular Response Margination: The polymorphnuclear leucocytes leave the blood and adhesion to the margin

Cellular Response Margination: The polymorphnuclear leucocytes leave the blood and adhesion to the margin of the endothelial lining of the capillaries. Emigration : The polymorphnuclear leucocytes pass between the endothelial cells through the vessels wall by amoeboid movement into damage tissue.

Cellular Response Chemotaxis: Is the directed movement of the polymorph-nuclear leucocytes and macrophages in

Cellular Response Chemotaxis: Is the directed movement of the polymorph-nuclear leucocytes and macrophages in the area of inflammation. Phagocytosis: Is the ingestion and destruction of the foreign particles by the phagocytic inflammatory cells.

2 - Margination of WBC’s: PMN move to the peripheral B. V & adherent

2 - Margination of WBC’s: PMN move to the peripheral B. V & adherent to endothelium B. V wall , this process called "Margination of WBC’s

3 - Emigration of WBC’s PMN or WBCs migration from vessels lumen into area

3 - Emigration of WBC’s PMN or WBCs migration from vessels lumen into area of tissue damage, this process called" Emigration of WBC’s"

Inflammation types: 1 - acute. 2 - chronic. 3 -sub-acute.

Inflammation types: 1 - acute. 2 - chronic. 3 -sub-acute.

Inflammation types: 1 - Acute inflammation: Sudden onset and short duration. -Cellular response Polymorphnuclear

Inflammation types: 1 - Acute inflammation: Sudden onset and short duration. -Cellular response Polymorphnuclear leucocytes, pus cells and macrophages. - Vascular response Numerous, thin walled, dilated blood vessels.

4 - Acute inflammatory cells: Mainly we see PMNL & small amount of macrophages.

4 - Acute inflammatory cells: Mainly we see PMNL & small amount of macrophages. PMNL= WBCs refer to neutrophil , cytoplasm contain fine violet granules , several lobes of nucleus , Pus cells= dead PMN lymphocytes or dead neutrophil. Machrophages=usually seen in acute & chronic inflammationl, Function of machrophages: 1 -phagocytosis &killing of bacteria. 2 -phagocytosis of necrotic debris. 3 -formation of giant cells.

Inflammation types: 2 - Chronic Inflammation: Gradual onset and prolonged duration connective tissue formation).

Inflammation types: 2 - Chronic Inflammation: Gradual onset and prolonged duration connective tissue formation). -Cellular response Lymphocytes, macrophages, plasma cells and giant cells. - Vascular response Few, thick walled, narrow blood vessels.

Inflammation types: 3 - Sub-acute Inflammation: in between the acute and the chronic

Inflammation types: 3 - Sub-acute Inflammation: in between the acute and the chronic

5 - chronic inflammatory cells Lymphocytes: WBCs, distinguished by dark blue round nuclei &

5 - chronic inflammatory cells Lymphocytes: WBCs, distinguished by dark blue round nuclei & small amount of cytoplasm. Plasma cells : WBCs, it is mature B-cell , identified by extensive basophilic cytoplasma & small eccentric nuclei( specific seen in chronic inflammation), it is produce large antibodies Fibroblast: is type of cell synthesizes C. T &plays critical role in wound healing Foreign body giant cell: is fused macrophages which are generated in response to present large foreign body, nuclei are arranged in disorganized manner. Langhans giant cell: is fusion of macrophages & contain arranged in horse shoeshaped pattern in cell periphery, found in granulomatous & tuberculosis conditions.

6 - chronic inflammatory cells Mainly we have Plasma cell , lymphocytes. &Fibroblast cells

6 - chronic inflammatory cells Mainly we have Plasma cell , lymphocytes. &Fibroblast cells to form

7 - chronic inflammatory cells: Mainly plasma cell , small amount of lymphocytes ,

7 - chronic inflammatory cells: Mainly plasma cell , small amount of lymphocytes , macrophages & fibroblast cells to form C. T

8 - Giant cell ( langerhan’s) specific : Atypical langhans giant cell formed by

8 - Giant cell ( langerhan’s) specific : Atypical langhans giant cell formed by fusion of macrophages in tuberculosis granuloma , contain nuclei horse shoe-shaped

9 - Giant cell (foreign body) nonspecific: Giant cell, nuclei arranged in disorganization pattern,

9 - Giant cell (foreign body) nonspecific: Giant cell, nuclei arranged in disorganization pattern, fibroblast & few lymphocytes.

10 - Acluster of giant cells around (foreign body) : A cluster of giant

10 - Acluster of giant cells around (foreign body) : A cluster of giant cells around (foreign body )&number of lymphocytes.