Cellular Respiration Chemical Potential Energy CATABOLISM ENERGY FOR

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Cellular Respiration

Cellular Respiration

Chemical Potential Energy CATABOLISM ENERGY FOR: ANABOLISM “ENTROPY” WORK

Chemical Potential Energy CATABOLISM ENERGY FOR: ANABOLISM “ENTROPY” WORK

+ Energy Coupled Reaction + Energy

+ Energy Coupled Reaction + Energy

+ Energy Coupled Reaction ATP ADP + Coupled Reaction + Energy

+ Energy Coupled Reaction ATP ADP + Coupled Reaction + Energy

VII. Cellular Respiration Overview:

VII. Cellular Respiration Overview:

MONOMERS and WASTE MATTER and ENERGY in FOOD DIGESTION AND CELLULAR RESPIRATION ADP +

MONOMERS and WASTE MATTER and ENERGY in FOOD DIGESTION AND CELLULAR RESPIRATION ADP + P ATP

VII. Cellular Respiration Overview: Focus on core process… Glucose metabolism GLYCOLYSIS

VII. Cellular Respiration Overview: Focus on core process… Glucose metabolism GLYCOLYSIS

VII. Cellular Respiration Overview: Focus on core process… Glucose metabolism GLYCOLYSIS Oxygen Present? Aerobic

VII. Cellular Respiration Overview: Focus on core process… Glucose metabolism GLYCOLYSIS Oxygen Present? Aerobic Resp. Oxygen Absent? Anaerobic Resp.

VII. Cellular Respiration Overview: Focus on core process… Glucose metabolism GLYCOLYSIS Oxygen Present? Oxygen

VII. Cellular Respiration Overview: Focus on core process… Glucose metabolism GLYCOLYSIS Oxygen Present? Oxygen Absent? Fermentation A little ATP

VII. Cellular Respiration Overview: Focus on core process… Glucose metabolism GLYCOLYSIS Oxygen Present? Gateway

VII. Cellular Respiration Overview: Focus on core process… Glucose metabolism GLYCOLYSIS Oxygen Present? Gateway CAC ETC LOTS OF ATP Oxygen Absent? Fermentation A little ATP

VII. Cellular Respiration Overview: 1. Glycolysis: - Occurs in presence OR absence of oxygen

VII. Cellular Respiration Overview: 1. Glycolysis: - Occurs in presence OR absence of oxygen gas. - All cells do this! (very primitive pathway) - Occurs in the cytoplasm of all cells

LE 9 -8 VII. Cellular Respiration Overview: 1. Glycolysis: Energy investment phase Glucose 2

LE 9 -8 VII. Cellular Respiration Overview: 1. Glycolysis: Energy investment phase Glucose 2 ADP + 2 P 2 ATP used Glycolysis Energy payoff phase ATP ATP 4 ADP + 4 P 2 NAD+ + 4 e– + 4 H+ 4 ATP formed 2 NADH + 2 H+ 2 Pyruvate + 2 H 2 O Net Glucose 4 ATP formed – 2 ATP used 2 NAD+ + 4 e– + 4 H+ 2 Pyruvate + 2 H 2 O 2 ATP 2 NADH + 2 H+

LE 9 -8 What's needed to keep the reaction going? Energy investment phase Glucose

LE 9 -8 What's needed to keep the reaction going? Energy investment phase Glucose 2 ADP + 2 P 2 ATP used Glycolysis Energy payoff phase ATP ATP 4 ADP + 4 P 2 NAD+ + 4 e– + 4 H+ 4 ATP formed 2 NADH + 2 H+ 2 Pyruvate + 2 H 2 O Net Glucose 4 ATP formed – 2 ATP used 2 NAD+ + 4 e– + 4 H+ 2 Pyruvate + 2 H 2 O 2 ATP 2 NADH + 2 H+

LE 9 -8 What's needed to keep the reaction going? Energy investment phase Glucose

LE 9 -8 What's needed to keep the reaction going? Energy investment phase Glucose - glucose. . (moot) 2 ADP + 2 P 2 ATP used Glycolysis Energy payoff phase ATP ATP 4 ADP + 4 P 2 NAD+ + 4 e– + 4 H+ 4 ATP formed 2 NADH + 2 H+ 2 Pyruvate + 2 H 2 O Net Glucose 4 ATP formed – 2 ATP used 2 NAD+ + 4 e– + 4 H+ 2 Pyruvate + 2 H 2 O 2 ATP 2 NADH + 2 H+

LE 9 -8 What's needed to keep the reaction going? Energy investment phase Glucose

LE 9 -8 What's needed to keep the reaction going? Energy investment phase Glucose - glucose. . 2 ADP + 2 P Glycolysisbut previous rxn - ATP. . . made some, so that's there 2 ATP used Energy payoff phase ATP ATP 4 ADP + 4 P 2 NAD+ + 4 e– + 4 H+ 4 ATP formed 2 NADH + 2 H+ 2 Pyruvate + 2 H 2 O Net Glucose 4 ATP formed – 2 ATP used 2 NAD+ + 4 e– + 4 H+ 2 Pyruvate + 2 H 2 O 2 ATP 2 NADH + 2 H+

LE 9 -8 What's needed to keep the reaction going? Energy investment phase Glucose

LE 9 -8 What's needed to keep the reaction going? Energy investment phase Glucose - glucose. . 2 ADP + 2 P Glycolysisbut previous rxn - ATP. . . made some, so that's there 2 ATP used Energy payoff phase ATP ATP -and you need NAD to accept the electrons. . -(nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) 4 ADP + 4 P 2 NAD+ + 4 e– + 4 H+ 4 ATP formed 2 NADH + 2 H+ 2 Pyruvate + 2 H 2 O Net Glucose 4 ATP formed – 2 ATP used 2 NAD+ + 4 e– + 4 H+ 2 Pyruvate + 2 H 2 O 2 ATP 2 NADH + 2 H+

LE 9 -8 What's needed to keep the reaction going? Energy investment phase Glucose

LE 9 -8 What's needed to keep the reaction going? Energy investment phase Glucose - glucose. . 2 ADP + 2 P Glycolysisbut previous rxn - ATP. . . made some, so that's there 2 ATP used Energy payoff phase ATP ATP - and you need NAD to accept the electrons. . AS GLYCOLYSIS PROCEEDS, THE [NAD+] DECLINES AND CAN BECOME LIMITING. . 4 ADP + 4 P 2 NAD+ + 4 e– + 4 H+ 4 ATP formed 2 NADH + 2 H+ 2 Pyruvate + 2 H 2 O Net Glucose 4 ATP formed – 2 ATP used 2 NAD+ + 4 e– + 4 H+ 2 Pyruvate + 2 H 2 O 2 ATP 2 NADH + 2 H+

LE 9 -8 What's needed to keep the reaction going? Energy investment phase Glucose

LE 9 -8 What's needed to keep the reaction going? Energy investment phase Glucose - glucose. . 2 ADP + 2 P Glycolysisbut previous rxn - ATP. . . made some, so that's there 2 ATP used Energy payoff phase ATP ATP - and you need NAD to accept the electrons. . AS GLYCOLYSIS PROCEEDS, THE [NAD+] DECLINES AND CAN BECOME LIMITING. . CELLS HAVE EVOLVED TO RECYCLE NAD+. . . SO GLYCOLYSIS CAN CONTINUE. . 4 ADP + 4 P 2 NAD+ + 4 e– + 4 H+ 4 ATP formed 2 NADH + 2 H+ 2 Pyruvate + 2 H 2 O Net Glucose 4 ATP formed – 2 ATP used 2 NAD+ + 4 e– + 4 H+ 2 Pyruvate + 2 H 2 O 2 ATP 2 NADH + 2 H+

LE 9 -18 Glucose CYTOSOL NAD+ PYRUVATE Pyruvate No O 2 present Fermentation O

LE 9 -18 Glucose CYTOSOL NAD+ PYRUVATE Pyruvate No O 2 present Fermentation O 2 present Cellular respiration MITOCHONDRION Ethanol or lactate Acetyl Co. A Citric acid cycle

VII. Cellular Respiration Overview: 1. Glycolysis 2. Anaerobic Respiration

VII. Cellular Respiration Overview: 1. Glycolysis 2. Anaerobic Respiration

LE 9 -17 a 2 ADP + 2 P i Glucose 2 ATP Glycolysis

LE 9 -17 a 2 ADP + 2 P i Glucose 2 ATP Glycolysis 2 Pyruvate 2 NAD+ 2 Ethanol Alcohol fermentation 2 NADH + 2 H+ 2 CO 2 2 Acetaldehyde

LE 9 -17 b 2 ADP + 2 P i Glucose 2 ATP Glycolysis

LE 9 -17 b 2 ADP + 2 P i Glucose 2 ATP Glycolysis 2 NAD+ Lactate 2 Lactate Lactic acid fermentation 2 NADH + 2 H+ 2 Pyruvate

VII. Cellular Respiration Overview: 1. Glycolysis 2. Anaerobic Respiration 3. Aerobic Respiration

VII. Cellular Respiration Overview: 1. Glycolysis 2. Anaerobic Respiration 3. Aerobic Respiration

VII. Cellular Respiration Overview: 1. Glycolysis 2. Anaerobic Respiration 3. Aerobic Respiration - Had

VII. Cellular Respiration Overview: 1. Glycolysis 2. Anaerobic Respiration 3. Aerobic Respiration - Had Glycolysis: C 6 (glucose) a - Gateway step: 2 C 3 (pyruvate) + ATP, NADH 2 C 2 (acetyl) + 2 C (CO 2) + NADH b - Citric Acid Cycle: 2 C 2 (acetyl) 4 C (CO 2) + NADH, FADH, ATP c - Electron Transport Chain: convert energy in NADH, FADH to ATP

LE 9 -10 Gateway step: 2 C 3 2 C 2 (acetyl) + 2

LE 9 -10 Gateway step: 2 C 3 2 C 2 (acetyl) + 2 C (CO 2) + NADH energy harvested as NADH NAD+ NADH + H+ Acetyl Co A Pyruvate Transport protein CO 2 Coenzyme A

VII. Cellular Respiration Overview: 1. Glycolysis 2. Anaerobic Respiration 3. Aerobic Respiration - Had

VII. Cellular Respiration Overview: 1. Glycolysis 2. Anaerobic Respiration 3. Aerobic Respiration - Had Glycolysis: C 6 (glucose) a - Gateway step: 2 C 3 (pyruvate) + ATP, NADH 2 C 2 (acetyl) + 2 C (CO 2) + NADH b - Citric Acid Cycle: 2 C 2 (acetyl) 4 C (CO 2) + NADH, FADH, ATP c - Electron Transport Chain: convert energy in NADH, FADH to ATP

b - Citric Acid Cycle: 2 C 2 (acetyl) 4 C (CO 2) +

b - Citric Acid Cycle: 2 C 2 (acetyl) 4 C (CO 2) + NADH, FADH, ATP

b - Citric Acid Cycle: 2 C 2 (acetyl) 1. C 2 (acetyl) binds

b - Citric Acid Cycle: 2 C 2 (acetyl) 1. C 2 (acetyl) binds to C 4 (oxaloacetate), making a C 6 molecule (citrate) 4 C (CO 2) + NADH, FADH, ATP

b - Citric Acid Cycle: 2 C 2 (acetyl) 1. C 2 (acetyl) binds

b - Citric Acid Cycle: 2 C 2 (acetyl) 1. C 2 (acetyl) binds to C 4 (oxaloacetate), making a C 6 molecule (citrate) 2. One C is broken off (CO 2) and NAD accepts energy (NADH) 4 C (CO 2) + NADH, FADH, ATP

b - Citric Acid Cycle: 2 C 2 (acetyl) 1. C 2 (acetyl) binds

b - Citric Acid Cycle: 2 C 2 (acetyl) 1. C 2 (acetyl) binds to C 4 (oxaloacetate), making a C 6 molecule (citrate) 2. One C is broken off (CO 2) and NAD accepts energy (NADH) 3. The second C is broken off (CO 2) and NAD accepts the energy…at this point the acetyl group has been split!! 4 C (CO 2) + NADH, FADH, ATP

b - Citric Acid Cycle: 2 C 2 (acetyl) 1. C 2 (acetyl) binds

b - Citric Acid Cycle: 2 C 2 (acetyl) 1. C 2 (acetyl) binds to C 4 (oxaloacetate), making a C 6 molecule (citrate) 2. One C is broken off (CO 2) and NAD accepts energy (NADH) 3. The second C is broken off (CO 2) and NAD accepts the energy…at this point the acetyl group has been split!! 4. The C 4 molecules is rearranged, regenerating the oxaloacetate; releasing energy that is stored in ATP, FADH, and NADH. 4 C (CO 2) + NADH, FADH, ATP

b - Citric Acid Cycle: 2 C 2 (acetyl) 1. C 2 (acetyl) binds

b - Citric Acid Cycle: 2 C 2 (acetyl) 1. C 2 (acetyl) binds to C 4 (oxaloacetate), making a C 6 molecule (citrate) 2. One C is broken off (CO 2) and NAD accepts energy (NADH) 3. The second C is broken off (CO 2) and NAD accepts the energy…at this point the acetyl group has been split!! 4. The C 4 molecules is rearranged, regenerating the oxaloacetate; releasing energy that is stored in ATP, FADH, and NADH. 5. In summary, the C 2 acetyl is split and the energy released is trapped in ATP, FADH, and 3 NADH. (this occurs for EACH of the 2 pyruvates from the initial glucose). 4 C (CO 2) + NADH, FADH, ATP

VII. Cellular Respiration Overview: 1. Glycolysis 2. Anaerobic Respiration 3. Aerobic Respiration a -

VII. Cellular Respiration Overview: 1. Glycolysis 2. Anaerobic Respiration 3. Aerobic Respiration a - Glycolysis: C 6 (glucose) b - Gateway step: 2 C 3 (pyruvate) + ATP, NADH 2 C 2 (acetyl) + 2 C (CO 2) + NADH c - Citric Acid Cycle: 2 C 2 (acetyl) 4 C (CO 2) + NADH, FADH, ATP d - Electron Transport Chain: convert energy in NADH, FADH to ATP

d - Electron Transport Chain: transfer energy in NADH, FADH to ATP

d - Electron Transport Chain: transfer energy in NADH, FADH to ATP

LE 9 -13 STORES ENERGY ATP NADH 50 Free energy (G) relative to O

LE 9 -13 STORES ENERGY ATP NADH 50 Free energy (G) relative to O 2 (kcal/mol) FADH 2 40 FMN I Fe • S Q III Cyt b 30 electron ADP + P Multiprotein complexes FAD Fe • S II Fe • S Cyt c 1 Glycolysis Citric acid cycle ATP Oxidative phosphorylation: electron transport and chemiosmosis IV Cyt c Cyt a 20 Cyt a 3 RELEASES ENERGY 10 0 2 H+ + 1/2 O 2 H 2 O ATP

LE 9 -13 STORES ENERGY ATP NADH 50 Free energy (G) relative to O

LE 9 -13 STORES ENERGY ATP NADH 50 Free energy (G) relative to O 2 (kcal/mol) FADH 2 40 FMN I Fe • S Q III Cyt b 30 electron ADP + P Multiprotein complexes FAD Fe • S II Fe • S Cyt c 1 Glycolysis Citric acid cycle ATP Oxidative phosphorylation: electron transport and chemiosmosis IV Cyt c Cyt a 20 ATP Cyt a 3 RELEASES ENERGY 10 0 2 H+ + 1/2 O 2 H 2 O HEY!!! Here’s the first time O 2 shows up!!! It is the final electron acceptor, and water is produced as a waste product!

LE 9 -15 Glycolysis Citric acid cycle ATP Oxidative phosphorylation: electron transport and chemiosmosis

LE 9 -15 Glycolysis Citric acid cycle ATP Oxidative phosphorylation: electron transport and chemiosmosis ETC: energy and electrons from NADH and FADH are used to pump H+ against gradient to inner membrane space…potential E. Inner mitochondrial membrane ATP H+ H+ H+ Intermembrane space H+ Cyt c Protein complex of electron carriers Q III I II FADH 2 Inner mitochondrial membrane NADH + H+ IV ATP synthase FAD 2 H+ + 1/2 O 2 H 2 O NAD+ Mitochondrial matrix ATP ADP + P i (carrying electrons from food) H+ Electron transport chain Electron transport and pumping of protons (H+), Which create an H+ gradient across the membrane Oxidative phosphorylation Chemiosmosis ATP synthesis powered by the flow of H+ back across the membrane

LE 9 -15 Glycolysis Citric acid cycle ATP Oxidative phosphorylation: electron transport and chemiosmosis

LE 9 -15 Glycolysis Citric acid cycle ATP Oxidative phosphorylation: electron transport and chemiosmosis ETC: energy and electrons from NADH and FADH are used to pump H+ against gradient to inner membrane space…potential E. Inner mitochondrial membrane ATP H+ H+ H+ Intermembrane space H+ Cyt c Protein complex of electron carriers Q III I II FADH 2 Inner mitochondrial membrane NADH + H+ IV ATP synthase FAD 2 H+ + 1/2 O 2 H 2 O NAD+ Mitochondrial matrix ATP ADP + P i (carrying electrons from food) H+ Electron transport chain Electron transport and pumping of protons (H+), Which create an H+ gradient across the membrane Oxidative phosphorylation Chemiosmosis ATP synthesis powered by the flow of H+ back across the membrane Chemiosmosis: E in flow of H+ used to make bond in ATP.

VII. Cellular Respiration Overview: 1. Glycolysis 2. Anaerobic Respiration 3. Aerobic Respiration d -

VII. Cellular Respiration Overview: 1. Glycolysis 2. Anaerobic Respiration 3. Aerobic Respiration d - Electron Transport Chain: convert energy in NADH, FADH to ATP - OXYGEN is just an electron ACCEPTOR - WATER is produced as a metabolic waste - All carbons in glucose have been separated - Energy has been harvested and stored in bonds in ATP

If O 2 is NOT present, the ETC backs up and NADH and FADH

If O 2 is NOT present, the ETC backs up and NADH and FADH can’t give up their electrons and H+ to the ETC

What happens then? ? If O 2 is NOT present, the ETC backs up

What happens then? ? If O 2 is NOT present, the ETC backs up and NADH and FADH can’t give up their electrons and H+ to the ETC

NADH is recycled through FERMENTATION to NAD so at least GLYCOLYSIS can continue!! If

NADH is recycled through FERMENTATION to NAD so at least GLYCOLYSIS can continue!! If O 2 is NOT present, the ETC backs up and NADH and FADH can’t give up their electrons and H+ to the ETC

FOOD ATP ANABOLISM CO 2, water, and waste ADP + P WORK

FOOD ATP ANABOLISM CO 2, water, and waste ADP + P WORK

Phosphorylation of myosin causes it to toggle and bond to actin; release of phosphate

Phosphorylation of myosin causes it to toggle and bond to actin; release of phosphate causes it to return to low energy state and pull actin…contraction.

FOOD ATP ANABOLISM CO 2, water, and waste ADP + P WORK

FOOD ATP ANABOLISM CO 2, water, and waste ADP + P WORK