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Cells Plant & Animal Cells
What are cells? Cells are the basic units that make up living things Cell Theory ALL living things are made of one or more cells The cell is the smallest unit of a living organism Cells come from other cells How do we know? 1665 Robert Hooke used a microscope to study thin slices of cork. He observed thin, boxy sections that he called cells. Anton van Leeuwenhoek became the first person to observe living cells.
Two Types of Cells Plant Cell Animal Cell
The Parts of a Cell organelles These Cells contain even smaller structures called ________. structures perform specific functions in the cell. Plant and animal cells have many of the same organelles, but some are quite different.
The Nucleus • The control center-directs the activities of the cell • Stores DNA
Cell Membrane • The gate keeper-Thin, flexible covering that surrounds all types of cells. • Allows food, water, and gases to enter the cell. • Also, allows wastes to leave
Cell Wall • ONLY in Plant Cells • Rigid outer layer that surrounds the cell membrane. • Protects the cell and helps the plant stand upright.
Cytoplasm • Thick, gooey fluid. • All remaining organelles are located within the cytoplasm.
Ribosomes • Tiny structure scattered throughout the cell • Assemble compounds called proteins, which allow the cell to perform nearly all chemical reactions
Lysosomes • • Small, ball shaped organelles that help the cell break down nutrients plant cells Very rare in _______
Vacuoles • Membrane-bound sacs filled with fluid • Store water, food, waste, and other substances the cell processes. • Animal= many small • Plant= one large (if many cells lose water the plant will wilt)
Golgi apparatus • Receives protein then processes them for “shipment” outside the cell. • Repairs proteins and protects them from being broken apart.
Chloroplast • ONLY in plant cells • Uses energy to make its’ own food through photosynthesis ________ • The pigment chlorophyll _______ gives plants their green color.
Mitochondria • Large, peanut-shaped organelles • “Power house” of the cell • Breaks down sugars as they react with oxygen. Releases carbon dioxide, water, and a lot of energy. • The more energy needed, the more mitochondria are present (Ex: muscle cell)
Endoplasmic Reticulum • • • System of membranes and tubes. Creates passages for material to pass Two types: • Rough-dotted with ribosomes (common in cells that secrete a lot of protein) • Smooth- not covered with ribosomes (breaks down toxic substances and controls the levels of certain chemicals)
Turn & Talk with your neighbor How would you determine whether a cell came from an animal or a plant?