- Slides: 25
Causes of World War I “The Great War” Allied soldiers climbing over trenches on first day of the costly Battle of the Somme (July 1, 1916).
What causes people and/or nations to go to war? What factors influence a nations decision?
“The Great War”
Easy Way to Remember the Causes of World War I? Use the Acronym: M. A. I. N.
Militarism A policy of glorifying military power and keeping a standing army always prepared for war. Militarists hold the view that security is the highest social priority, and claim that the development and maintenance of the military ensures that security. “Deterrence”
Imperialism Domination by a strong country of the political, economic, or cultural life of another country or region. or Takeover of a weak country by a stronger one.
How Does Imperialism Cause a War? § Increased Competition = Tension § Fight for land - establishing boundaries § More land = More Power “Empire” § Raw Materials = $$$
Imperialism: Good or Bad? Pros: Cons:
Nationalism A feeling of pride and devotion to ones country
Bonds That Create Nationalism Territory that belongs to an ethnic group Culture Shared way of life (food, Dress, Behavior, Ideals) Language Religion “National Language” shared by the majority Religion shared by all or most of its people Nationality History Belief in common ethnic ancestry that may or may not be true Common past, common experiences
Positive and Negative Results of Nationalism Positive Negative • People in a nation overcoming their differences for a common good • Forced assimilation of minority cultures into a nations majority culture • The overthrow of colonial rule • Ethnic cleansing (Holocaust, Bosnia and Herzegovina 1990’s) • Democracy in nations throughout the world • The rise of extreme nationalistic movements, such as Nazism • Competition between nations spurring • Competition between nations leading scientific and technological advances to warfare
Alliance Systems Increased tensions and suspicions led nations to form alliances. Nations agreed to defend each other in case of attack. “Collective Security”
World War I Alliances The Players: Central Powers: Germany, Austria-Hungary, Ottoman Empire Allied Powers: Britain, France, Russia, Serbia, Italy
The “Powder Keg” of Europe Why is it called the “Powder Keg” ? § Tension created by nationalism and the composition of many different cultures, religions, and languages in one region. Why is this area so strategic?
The Bosporus Strait Taken from the International Space Station in 2004 Black Sea Turkey Sea of Marmara
Strategic Waterways Sea. of Marmara Gallipoli Pen. --> Aegean Sea <--Dardanelles Ottoman Empire/Turkey
“The Spark” • Many groups in Balkans win independence during early 1900 s • New nation of Serbia made up largely of Slavs • Austria-Hungary annexes Slavic region Bosnia and Herzegovina (1908) • Serbia outraged, sees itself as rightful ruler of these Slavic lands A Shot Rings Throughout Europe • Serbian rebel assassinates Austro. Hungarian Archduke Franz Ferdinand in June 1914 • Austria declares war on Serbia; Russia comes to aid of Serbia
Memoir of Count Franz von Harrach As the car quickly reversed, a thin stream of blood spurted from His Highness's mouth onto my right check. As I was pulling out my handkerchief to wipe the blood away from his mouth, the Duchess cried out to him, "For God's sake! What has happened to you? "At that she slid off the seat and lay on the floor of the car, with her face between his knees. I had no idea that she too was hit and thought she had simply fainted with fright. Then I heard His Imperial Highness say, "Sophie, don't die. Stay alive for the children!"At that, I seized the Archduke by the collar of his uniform, to stop his head dropping forward and asked him if he was in great pain. He answered me quite distinctly, "It is nothing!"His face began to twist somewhat but he went on repeating, six or seven times, ever more faintly as he gradually lost consciousness, "It's nothing!"Then came a brief pause followed by a convulsive rattle in his throat, caused by a loss of blood. This ceased on arrival at the governor's residence. The two unconscious bodies were carried into the building where their death was soon established
From the June 2004 Regents in Global Hist. and Geography
“Ticket Out the Door” With your partner and using the paper from the beginning of class, create Two Multiple Choice questions from today’s material. Please put your names on the paper. *Note: They may be used on a future quiz and/or test.