CAUSES OF WORLD WAR I The Great War

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CAUSES OF WORLD WAR I “The Great War” “The War to End All Wars”

CAUSES OF WORLD WAR I “The Great War” “The War to End All Wars”

Lots of books on this subject

Lots of books on this subject

Archduke Franz Ferdinand & his wife Sophie

Archduke Franz Ferdinand & his wife Sophie

June 28 th, 1914 • The Archduke and his wife are assassinated in Sarajevo

June 28 th, 1914 • The Archduke and his wife are assassinated in Sarajevo • Killed by a Serb nationalist

Gavrilo Princip

Gavrilo Princip

Gun he used; Browning pistol

Gun he used; Browning pistol

Princip grabbed moments after shooting

Princip grabbed moments after shooting

Consequences • Austria-Hungary blames Serbia • Demands apology & many other things Serbia can’t

Consequences • Austria-Hungary blames Serbia • Demands apology & many other things Serbia can’t possibly do

Consequences • Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbia • Serbia is protected by Russia •

Consequences • Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbia • Serbia is protected by Russia • Austria-Hungary is allies with Germany

News of war spreads in U. S.

News of war spreads in U. S.

United States • When war starts in 1914 U. S. wants to stay out

United States • When war starts in 1914 U. S. wants to stay out of war

1914 • Central Powers: Germany & Austria. Hungary • Allied Powers: Russia, France, Great

1914 • Central Powers: Germany & Austria. Hungary • Allied Powers: Russia, France, Great Britain

By end of 1915 • Ottoman Empire joins Central Powers • Italy joins the

By end of 1915 • Ottoman Empire joins Central Powers • Italy joins the Allies • Two equally powerful sides leads to a stalemate

World War One The War Itself

World War One The War Itself

Modern War • WWI was the first “Modern War” • First machine guns, tanks,

Modern War • WWI was the first “Modern War” • First machine guns, tanks, airplanes, poison gas, etc. used in war • Generals still were trained to order troops to march toward one another and kill • This led to the creation of large stalemated trench systems that held terrible conditions

The Schlieffen Plan • Germany knew a war on two fronts was possible •

The Schlieffen Plan • Germany knew a war on two fronts was possible • To avoid this they developed Schlieffen Plan • Plan: – Assert all resources on France and try to defeat them quickly – Then focus on Russia – Had to attack through Belgium (Neutral) – When they did this Great Britain declared war on Germany

The Western Front • Germany’s battle with France – Tried for quick victory –

The Western Front • Germany’s battle with France – Tried for quick victory – 1. 5 million soldiers died in first 4 nights – Led to development of Trench Warfare • Trench Warfare: • Dug vast trenches across France • Between armies laid “no mans land”

Trench Life

Trench Life

Ready for battle

Ready for battle

Going over the top

Going over the top

Well Deserved Rest

Well Deserved Rest

The Armenian Massacre • Conflict in the Ottoman Empire • Thought Ethnic Armenians were

The Armenian Massacre • Conflict in the Ottoman Empire • Thought Ethnic Armenians were aiding Russia • Spring of 1915 forcibly removed Armenians from their homeland • 600, 000 died from violence and starvation • Ottoman leaders accused of Genocide – The deliberate destruction of a racial, political, or cultural group

U-Boats • German developed submarines called U-Boats • Germany installed a policy of unrestricted

U-Boats • German developed submarines called U-Boats • Germany installed a policy of unrestricted submarine warfare – Any ship traveling in the waters around great Britain was subject to German attack • Germans believed U. S was bringing supplies to Great Britain on civilian ships • U. S was selling millions of dollars of war goods to Britain

Lusitania • A U. S passenger ship that was sunk by German u-boats –

Lusitania • A U. S passenger ship that was sunk by German u-boats – 1200 people killed / 120 Americans • U. S complained about the loss of American lives • Germans feared of U. S entry in war – Germany agreed to stop attacking ships • Germany started to lose war to Britain – reestablished the submarine warfare – U. S close to joining war

The Zimmerman Note • A secret message from German diplomat Arthur Zimmerman to officials

The Zimmerman Note • A secret message from German diplomat Arthur Zimmerman to officials in Mexico – German proposed Mexico to attack U. S – In return Germany promised Mexico land • Texas, Arizona, and New Mexico – Hope U. S war with Mexico would keep them from entering WWI • April 1917 U. S joined the war with the Allied Powers

Western Front • New Weapons: – – Machine guns Long range guns Tanks Aerial

Western Front • New Weapons: – – Machine guns Long range guns Tanks Aerial battles between pilots

 • Stalemate: – – Heavy losses to both sides Neither gained advantage Struggle

• Stalemate: – – Heavy losses to both sides Neither gained advantage Struggle for Verdun “While gains and losses of land were measured in yards, lives were being lost the hundreds of thousands. ”

The Eastern Front • Germany’s Battle with Russia • Russia made heavy advances into

The Eastern Front • Germany’s Battle with Russia • Russia made heavy advances into Germany • Russia though was poorly trained, equipped and led • Suffered huge losses and problems at home • New gov’t realized fate and signed humiliating treaty with Germany in 1918

Other Fronts • Italy: – Made secret agreement with France and Britain • Asia

Other Fronts • Italy: – Made secret agreement with France and Britain • Asia and the Pacific: – Japan joined Allies in 1914 • Took over German territory in Asia and the Pacific • The Ottoman Empire: – Worst fighting on coast of Turkey – Placed blockade of supplies to prevent allied aid from reaching Russians • Africa: – Germany lost most of their territory in Africa

The Armistice • Germany had thrown all its resources into a last, unsuccessful attack

The Armistice • Germany had thrown all its resources into a last, unsuccessful attack on the Western front in France. – America’s arrival ended this treat and Germany’s chance to win the war – Now lacked: • Food, Medicine, Oil, and weapon • German generals urged government to sign an armistice: a halt to the fighting

The Armistice • In 1918 Austria-Hungary and the Ottoman Empire surrendered • Rebellions in

The Armistice • In 1918 Austria-Hungary and the Ottoman Empire surrendered • Rebellions in Germany forced the Kaiser to give up the throne

Paris Peace Conference • January 1919 an international peace conference is held in Paris

Paris Peace Conference • January 1919 an international peace conference is held in Paris • Wilson was greeted as a hero by the French • Wilson wanted an “organized common peace” • The French wanted REVENGE for the War from the Germans

The Results • Wilson produced a plan for the “League of Nations” in which

The Results • Wilson produced a plan for the “League of Nations” in which members pledged an attack on one as an attack on all • American gov’t refused to join • The other Allies accepted it

Treaty of Versailles • Signed June 28, 1919 in France – officially ended the

Treaty of Versailles • Signed June 28, 1919 in France – officially ended the war • Reparations (Britain wanted) – Committee ruled that Germany owed $33 Billion to the Allies – This was far beyond what it could afford to pay • Guilt Clause (France wanted) – Take full responsibility for the war • Reduce Military – Limit the size of its military • Loss of Land – Give back conquered land then some – Loss colonies

German Reaction • Furious, though no choice but to sign • Reparations crippled economy

German Reaction • Furious, though no choice but to sign • Reparations crippled economy • Bitterness would affect German politics in years to come

Changes In Europe • Austria-Hungary, Ottoman Empire lands broken apart • Independent nations created:

Changes In Europe • Austria-Hungary, Ottoman Empire lands broken apart • Independent nations created: Austria, Hungary, Yugoslavia, Czechoslovakia, Turkey • France, Germany, Russia, Belgium all had crippled economies following war • U. S, Japan prospered

War Ends • The final assault of WWI came on September 26, 1918 when

War Ends • The final assault of WWI came on September 26, 1918 when over a million allied soldiers began to drive German troops out of France for good • November 11, 1918 an armistice, or cease fire, was signed • Over 50, 000 Americans had died • 1 million French troops died, 4, 000 French towns were destroyed • 900, 000 British troops died • Russian deaths were also very high • All told, the war killed over 20 million civilians from fighting, starvation, disease, etc.