Why did they build castles?
Why did they build castles? • For defense!! o From the Vikings • Viking raids were halted and eventually stopped because castles were built and well defended. • Vikings were raiders, did not have the patience to siege. • In future wars (siege wars). • Set up base for raiding. o William the Conqueror built Motte & Bailey castles when first landed at Hastings.
Components of a Castle • Motte – Mound of Earth that a tower would be built on. • Bailey – large level area below the Motte. Protected by a fence and a ditch. Used for keeping animals, stores & as extra living space. • Moat – A wet or dry ditch to protect the castle from attack: it would surround the Motte & the Bailey.
Components of a Castle • Palisade Wall – protected the Bailey perimeter from attack. • Drawbridge – if attacked it was lifted up. • Tower - A stone or wooden building/tower to protect those in the castle if the enemy got into the Bailey.
• Drawbridge • Bailey • Motte • Moat • Tower • Palisade Wall
Bailey Tower Drawbridge Motte How well did you Moat do? Palisade Wall
Keep Gateway Motte Bailey Bridge Moat
Features of the motte and bailey castles Keep Function of the motte and bailey castles Describe the key features and how you think each of the features would be good for defence Sometimes called the tower, usually made out of wood- is the tallest part of the castle. This feature is good for defence as you can see all around you castle from this point – so you will be able to keep a look out and be ready if you are to be attacked This connected the keep to the Bailey. This was good for defence because it could be smashed it if they had to retreat to the keep when under attack Bridge Bailey Gateway This was an enclosed area, usually on a smaller earthwork than the motte. Here the soldiers lived and slept. This was good for defence as it was kept separate from the motte Otherwise known as the drawbridge, this was good for defence as when not in use it prevented people from entering as there was a mote around the castle that acted as an extra defence to stop unwelcome visitors
Stone Castles • What is a weakness with Motte & Bailey Castles? • Stone castles were built during peace time, because wooden castles were easily set on fire and cannot be protected as well as Stone Castles. • Defense: • Location – built on hills or cliffs. Make it hard to surround. • Barbican – Extra gatehouse at the front of the castle • Portcullis - Strong oak & metal gate at the front of the castle. • Murder holes – holes that soldiers could pour hot sand, water & lime through to kill & wound an enemy.
Assignment • I am a King looking to build a castle. • Your job is to design a castle with your partner. • Your castle must include an Motte, Bailey, Drawbridge, Tower/Keep, Moat & Palisade Wall. • You can add anything else you want to try and sell your design. o You also need to specify what materials will be used to build your castle, ex. Wood or Stone.