- Slides: 21
What is a vowel sound? • Consonant sounds are mostly articulated via closure or obstruction in the vocal tract, • vowel sounds are produced with a relatively free flow of air. They are all typically voiced.
What is a cardinal vowel? • Cardinal vowels are a set of reference vowels used by phoneticians in describing the sounds of languages. • A cardinal vowel is a vowel sound produced when the tongue is in an extreme position, either front or back, high or low.
• In describing vowel sounds, we consider the way in which the tongue influences the ‘shape’ through which the airflow must pass.
Front 1. /iː/ (long high front spread vowel). Examples: cream, seen, sea, see, 2. /ɪ/ (short high front spread vowel) Examples: bit, silly, pin, sit 3. /e/ (short mid front spread vowel) Examples: bet, head, get, beg 4. /æ/ (Short low front spread vowel) Examples: cat, dad, act, fact
Central 5. /ɜː/ long mid central spread vowel. examples: earth, burn, firm 6. /ə/ short mid central spread vowel. examples: about, clever, ago, teacher 7. /ʌ/ Short low central spread vowel. examples: cut, note: the vowel sound in not and what is the not the same as that in cut and nut
Back Vowels 8. /u: / long high back rounded vowel Examples: boot, glue, moon 9. /ʊ/ short high back rounded vowel examples: put, soot, would, wood 10. /ɔː/ long mid back rounded vowel examples: corn, born, horse 11. /ɒ/ short low back slightly rounded vowel examples: pot, dog, plot, what, not 12. /ɑː/ long low back spread vowel examples: hard, far, car, farm
Describe the following Vowel /ɪ/ /æ/ /ʌ/ /ɒ/ High, mid, low Back, front Short, long Rounded/unro unded
Vowel /ʊ/ /ɔː/ High, mid, low Back, front Short, long Rounded/unro unded
Describe the underlined vowel sound 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Glue Mother Corn Cream Sit Act car
Diphthongs & Triphthongs
Diphthongs: The term diphthong is derived from Greek. - It means “double sound” which is a glide from one vowel to another in the same syllable. - It behaves like a simple vowel in other respects. - They are called falling diphthongs because in them, the first element is more prominent and they also carry length and stress. - Like long vowels, all of them are relatively longer when they occur before voiced sounds or finally.
In English, there are 8 diphthongs. They can be subdivided into 2 categories: 1 - Closing diphthongs: Those diphthongs which have the close vowels /ᶷ/ & /ᴵ/ 2 - Centering Diphthongs: Those diphthongs which have the central vowel /ᵊ/
Triphthongs: -A triphthong is a vowel glide with three distinguishable vowel qualities. - Triphthongs can be looked on as being composed of the five closing diphthongs described with /ᵊ/ added at the end.
Triphthong ( Closing Diphthong + /ᵊ/) Ending in/ᴵ/+ /ᵊ/ Ending in /ᶷ/+/ᵊ/
- In English, there are, said to be, five triphthongs formed by adding /ᵊ/ to the closing diphthongs. Layer, player, mayor Fire, higher, liar royal, loyal Lower, mower Power, hour
Transcribe the following Fire Higher Hour Layer Liar Lower Loyal Mayor Mower Player Power Royal Soya Slower Flyer
• The end