Cambridge Nationals Level Topic Exploration Pack Sport Science

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Cambridge Nationals Level ½ Topic Exploration Pack Sport Science Unit R 044 – Sport

Cambridge Nationals Level ½ Topic Exploration Pack Sport Science Unit R 044 – Sport psychology

Contents Aims Learning outcome 1 – understand the relationship between personality and sports performance

Contents Aims Learning outcome 1 – understand the relationship between personality and sports performance Learning outcome 2 – know how motivation can affect sports performance Learning outcome 3 – know how aggression can affect sports performance Learning outcome 4 – understand the impact of arousal and anxiety on sports performance Learning outcome 5 – be able to apply sport psychology strategies to enhance sports performance Cambridge Nationals Level 1/2 Sport Science Unit R 044 © OCR 2021

Learning outcome 1 – understand the relationship between personality and sports performance By the

Learning outcome 1 – understand the relationship between personality and sports performance By the end of this learning outcome you should know: • • • The definition of personality Extrovert and introvert personality types The links between personality and involvement and performance in sport The trait approach Observed or social learning theories. Cambridge Nationals Level 1/2 Sport Science Unit R 044 © OCR 2021

Learning outcome 1 – understand the relationship between personality and sports performance Definition of

Learning outcome 1 – understand the relationship between personality and sports performance Definition of personality The way we behave in certain situations, whether we are generally calm or nervous, whether we are outgoing or shy. Tips: • When you provide a definition you need to write it in your own words • Read the definition and describe it in a way that shows you understand what it means. Personality is unique to every person. It is important that a sports performer knows their personality characteristics so that they can manage them and make sure they don’t have a negative effect on sports performance. Cambridge Nationals Level 1/2 Sport Science Unit R 044 © OCR 2021

Learning outcome 1 – understand the relationship between personality and sports performance Extrovert personality

Learning outcome 1 – understand the relationship between personality and sports performance Extrovert personality types • People who have an extrovert personality are outgoing and prefer to be with other people • They often perform better under pressure • They enjoy working as a team and playing team sports • They like a challenge and taking on roles of responsibility. Introvert personality types • People who have an introvert personality are often shy and prefer to be on their own • They often perform better without pressure • They enjoy working on their own and in individual sports • They like activities which require accuracy and patience. Cambridge Nationals Level 1/2 Sport Science Unit R 044 © OCR 2021

Learning outcome 1 – understand the relationship between personality and sports performance Extrovert and

Learning outcome 1 – understand the relationship between personality and sports performance Extrovert and introvert personality types Task: • Why would it be useful for a sports coach to know what personality type and characteristics their athletes have? • Name four different sports and explain why you think introverts or extroverts would be better suited to them. o You should also think about the different roles/positions in the sport and how they might affect your selection of personality type. • Identify four sports that you enjoy playing, do these link to the personality type you are? Cambridge Nationals Level 1/2 Sport Science Unit R 044 © OCR 2021

Learning outcome 1 – understand the relationship between personality and sports performance The links

Learning outcome 1 – understand the relationship between personality and sports performance The links between personality and involvement and performance in sport More aggressive personalities will be more likely to play an aggressive sport. Think about… Which personality types play different sports. Discuss with a partner which sports you prefer to play and how this may link to your personality type. Cambridge Nationals Level 1/2 Sport Science Unit R 044 © OCR 2021

Learning outcome 1 – understand the relationship between personality and sports performance The trait

Learning outcome 1 – understand the relationship between personality and sports performance The trait approach • • • The Trait theory suggests that people have certain personality traits or characteristics and these determine how the person will behave The traits are stable or consistent and will stay the same in different environments or situations For example, if you are a calm person you will behave calmly in a stressful situation like a competition as you would in training A sports performer who is naturally aggressive will be aggressive in a competition This theory says that aggression is seen as a desirable trait for a rugby team captain. The captain needs to be vocal and an extrovert. Think about… Which personality traits or characteristics do you show and how do these suit the sports you like to perform. Cambridge Nationals Level 1/2 Sport Science Unit R 044 © OCR 2021

Learning outcome 1 – understand the relationship between personality and sports performance Observed or

Learning outcome 1 – understand the relationship between personality and sports performance Observed or social learning • • • Observational or social learning happens by observing the behavior of others. By watching others you learn to copy their behaviours This theory says that the environment can influence personality and behaviour, so a young tennis player might be more likely to criticise the line judge if they see this happening regularly in professional tennis on television The Social learning theory suggests that if aggressive defensive methods in rugby are seen to work, they are more likely to be copied. Activity: In your table groups discuss skills or techniques which you have tried because you have seen other sports people, friends perform them. Cambridge Nationals Level 1/2 Sport Science Unit R 044 © OCR 2021

Learning outcome 2 – know how motivation can affect sports performance By the end

Learning outcome 2 – know how motivation can affect sports performance By the end of this learning outcome you should know: • • • The definition of motivation Intrinsic motivation Extrinsic motivation Achievement motivation The implications of motivation for sport and exercise involvement Cambridge Nationals Level 1/2 Sport Science Unit R 044 © OCR 2021

Learning outcome 2 – know how motivation can affect sports performance Definition of motivation

Learning outcome 2 – know how motivation can affect sports performance Definition of motivation The desire to do something and move toward a goal. Tips: • When you provide a definition, you need to write it in your own words • Read the definition and describe it in a way that shows you understand what it means. Only a certain type of person is motivated to participate in sport. • These people want to participate • They want to achieve a goal • They want the challenge of training and competing. Cambridge Nationals Level 1/2 Sport Science Unit R 044 © OCR 2021

Learning outcome 2 – know how motivation can affect sports performance Intrinsic motivation •

Learning outcome 2 – know how motivation can affect sports performance Intrinsic motivation • This type of motivation comes from inside you, from your enjoyment of taking part in something and wanting to succeed • For example, beating your personal best or wanting to improve at a sport because you enjoy it • A tennis player with intrinsic motivation wants to train every day because they enjoy it and love learning new skills. Cambridge Nationals Level 1/2 Sport Science Unit R 044 © OCR 2021

Learning outcome 2 – know how motivation can affect sports performance Extrinsic motivation •

Learning outcome 2 – know how motivation can affect sports performance Extrinsic motivation • This type of motivation comes from external rewards. You take part in something because you get a reward for doing it • For example, working towards achieving a certificate or award, making a lot of money from wining a tournament • A footballer with extrinsic motivation plays in a league competition because they get paid for playing. Cambridge Nationals Level 1/2 Sport Science Unit R 044 © OCR 2021

Learning outcome 2 – know how motivation can affect sports performance Intrinsic and extrinsic

Learning outcome 2 – know how motivation can affect sports performance Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation Activity: • Make a list of the sports you participate in • For each sport identify your motivation for participating, for example, you enjoy playing, you want to learn new skills • For each sport explain what motivates you to participate in them. You must identify if these are extrinsic or intrinsic motivational factors • Discuss your findings with a partner and see if there and similarities and differences. Cambridge Nationals Level 1/2 Sport Science Unit R 044 © OCR 2021

Learning outcome 2 – know how motivation can affect sports performance Achievement motivation ‘Need

Learning outcome 2 – know how motivation can affect sports performance Achievement motivation ‘Need to Achieve’ (NACH) Explains a person's desire for success, to competently perform a new skill, to perform at a high level This type of motivation is what drives you to complete a challenge, to keep training and to want to win. ‘Need to Avoid Failure’ (NAF) (e. g. will always do the easy thing) Explains a person's ability to feel satisfaction or pride from accomplishments This type of motivation is what makes you want to avoid failure and can make you do the easy thing instead of trying something difficult. Cambridge Nationals Level 1/2 Sport Science Unit R 044 © OCR 2021

Learning outcome 2 – know how motivation can affect sports performance The implications of

Learning outcome 2 – know how motivation can affect sports performance The implications of motivation for sport and exercise involvement • Motivation can determine which sport/activities you choose to participate in • Motivation can effect how hard you try • Motivation can make you keep trying or give up. Think about… • Do you think your sports performance and attitude to training demonstrate – NACH or NAF? • How do NACH and NAF effect your performance in your favourite and least favourite sports? Cambridge Nationals Level 1/2 Sport Science Unit R 044 © OCR 2021

Learning outcome 3 – know how aggression can affect sports performance By the end

Learning outcome 3 – know how aggression can affect sports performance By the end of this learning outcome you should know: • • • The types of aggression Reasons for aggression Different theories of aggression. Cambridge Nationals Level 1/2 Sport Science Unit R 044 © OCR 2021

Learning outcome 3 – know how aggression can affect sports performance Types of aggression

Learning outcome 3 – know how aggression can affect sports performance Types of aggression What is aggression? Behaviour against another person or object. It is not an accident, it can be positive or negative depending on whether it is controlled. Direct This type of aggression is directed at an opponent/participant/official, for example, wanting to hurt an opponent in a football tackle. Indirect This type of aggression is directed at an object, for example, smashing a golf club in frustration after a poor shot. Think about… During a sports activity when have you shown direct and indirect aggression. Cambridge Nationals Level 1/2 Sport Science Unit R 044 © OCR 2021

Learning outcome 3 – know how aggression can affect sports performance Reasons for aggression

Learning outcome 3 – know how aggression can affect sports performance Reasons for aggression Rivalry During a boxing weigh-in or national rivalry such as England vs. Scotland. Behaviour of opposition This could be shown by foul play in a game or taunting the opposition. Pressures to win Playing in a cup final match or relegation battle. Decisions of officials If foul play is not punished, players cannot accept that the referee’s decision is final. Over-arousal during play A football player becoming too ‘pumped up’ and launching into a reckless tackle. Activity: For each of the reasons for aggression give two more sports examples. Cambridge Nationals Level 1/2 Sport Science Unit R 044 © OCR 2021

Learning outcome 3 – know how aggression can affect sports performance Theories of aggression

Learning outcome 3 – know how aggression can affect sports performance Theories of aggression Social learning theory • This theory suggests that new behaviours can be learned from observing and copying others • For example, if aggressive defensive methods in football are seen to work, they are more likely to be copied. Trait theory • This theory suggests that behaviours are parts of your personality and you have a unique set of traits • For example, if a performer has an aggressive personality trait, competition will bring this out and they will behave aggressively. Task: In pairs identify different sporting examples to describe how these theories apply to sport and sports performers. Cambridge Nationals Level 1/2 Sport Science Unit R 044 © OCR 2021

Learning outcome 4 – understand the impact of arousal and anxiety on sports performance

Learning outcome 4 – understand the impact of arousal and anxiety on sports performance By the end of this learning outcome you should know: • • The explanations of arousal Theories of how arousal/anxiety affects performance How to apply these theories to sporting examples Different methods for measuring anxiety. Cambridge Nationals Level 1/2 Sport Science Unit R 044 © OCR 2021

Learning outcome 4 – understand the impact of arousal and anxiety on sports performance

Learning outcome 4 – understand the impact of arousal and anxiety on sports performance Explanations of arousal • Arousal is an energised state that can help or hinder performance • For example, a figure skater may feel highly aroused just before a performance and much less aroused an hour after the performance has ended. Think about… How arousal has affected your sports performance both positively and negatively. Cambridge Nationals Level 1/2 Sport Science Unit R 044 © OCR 2021

Learning outcome 4 – understand the impact of arousal and anxiety on sports performance

Learning outcome 4 – understand the impact of arousal and anxiety on sports performance Theories of how arousal/anxiety affects performance and how to apply theories of how arousal/anxiety affects performance to sporting examples Drive theory • This theory suggest that there is a link between arousal/anxiety and performance • For example, a sports performer needs arousal/anxiety to perform at their best • Some elite performers find it hard to get motivated for ‘minor’ events compared to big international tournaments. Sporting example – a professional cricketer will play well in a match, as the match goes on, they become more aroused and play better and better. Task: Give three examples of how the Drive theory affects sports performance. Cambridge Nationals Level 1/2 Sport Science Unit R 044 © OCR 2021

Learning outcome 4 – understand the impact of arousal and anxiety on sports performance

Learning outcome 4 – understand the impact of arousal and anxiety on sports performance Theories of how arousal/anxiety affects performance and how to apply theories of how arousal/anxiety affects performance to sporting examples Inverted U theory • This theory suggests that arousal/anxiety levels and performance increase up to an optimal point, then they both begin to decrease • For example, a sports performer will have a peak in performance and arousal/anxiety. Sporting example – a gymnast performing a floor routine could be performing very well, but as they become more aroused their performance increases to a level, they might make a mistake and their arousal and performance decrease. Task: Give three examples of how the Inverted U theory affect sports performance. Cambridge Nationals Level 1/2 Sport Science Unit R 044 © OCR 2021

Learning outcome 4 – understand the impact of arousal and anxiety on sports performance

Learning outcome 4 – understand the impact of arousal and anxiety on sports performance Theories of how arousal/anxiety affects performance and how to apply theories of how arousal/anxiety affects performance to sporting examples Zones of optimal functioning • This theory suggests that there are differences in the way people react to arousal/anxiety. Some people will succeed when arousal/anxiety is low while others tend to succeed when arousal/anxiety is high • In some sports, performers will need higher arousal/anxiety levels than others to ‘be in the zone’. Sporting example – rugby players about to go into a scrum would require more arousal/anxiety than a snooker player making a break. Task: Give three examples of how the zones of optimal functioning affect sports performance. Cambridge Nationals Level 1/2 Sport Science Unit R 044 © OCR 2021

Learning outcome 4 – understand the impact of arousal and anxiety on sports performance

Learning outcome 4 – understand the impact of arousal and anxiety on sports performance Methods for measuring anxiety Sport Competition Anxiety Test (SCAT) • • • A SCAT test is carried out by completing a questionnaire about anxiety The questionnaire usually contains 15 questions about how they feel in competitive situations The results of a SCAT test can be analysed to predict a sports person's level of anxiety. Task: Use the internet to research scat tests. Carry out a SCAT test and discuss your results with a partner. Cambridge Nationals Level 1/2 Sport Science Unit R 044 © OCR 2021

Learning outcome 4 – understand the impact of arousal and anxiety on sports performance

Learning outcome 4 – understand the impact of arousal and anxiety on sports performance Methods for measuring anxiety State Anxiety Inventory Test • • A State Anxiety Inventory Test is a test/questionnaire which can be used to identify how strongly a person feels anxious The results form the test can be used to detect levels of anxiety in a sports performer. Task: Use the internet to research State Anxiety Inventory Test. Carry out a State Anxiety Inventory Test and discuss your results with a partner. An example can be found here. Cambridge Nationals Level 1/2 Sport Science Unit R 044 © OCR 2021

Learning outcome 5 – be able to apply sport psychology strategies to enhance sports

Learning outcome 5 – be able to apply sport psychology strategies to enhance sports performance By the end of this learning outcome you should know: • • • The use of goal setting for motivation in sport The use of mental rehearsal and imagery in sport The use of relaxation techniques in sport How to apply appropriate strategies for specific subject(s) How to assess whether strategies have had an impact on sports performance. Cambridge Nationals Level 1/2 Sport Science Unit R 044 © OCR 2021

Learning outcome 5 – be able to apply sport psychology strategies to enhance sports

Learning outcome 5 – be able to apply sport psychology strategies to enhance sports performance The use of goal setting for motivation in sport • • SMART targets can be used to set useful goals for sports performers For targets to be useful they need to be relevant and designed for the individual performer. Specific The goal needs to address what it is that you want to achieve. Measurable The goal should have a starting and end point or benchmark so that progress can be recorded. Achievable The goal must be something that the spots person can actually do, or be able to do with time and practise. Realistic The goal must be something that the sports person has the time, resources and ability to do. Time-bound The goal needs a clear start and finish. Cambridge Nationals Level 1/2 Sport Science Unit R 044 © OCR 2021

Learning outcome 5 – be able to apply sport psychology strategies to enhance sports

Learning outcome 5 – be able to apply sport psychology strategies to enhance sports performance The use of goal setting for motivation in sport Activity: • In pairs select a sport that you enjoy participating in. • Work with your partner to produce a SMART goal for each other. • Make sure that the goals are SMART. • Discuss with your partner why a SMART goal may be more useful than setting a goal without using the SMART acronym. • Discuss the impact SMART targets can have on a sports persons motivation. Cambridge Nationals Level 1/2 Sport Science Unit R 044 © OCR 2021

Learning outcome 5 – be able to apply sport psychology strategies to enhance sports

Learning outcome 5 – be able to apply sport psychology strategies to enhance sports performance The use of mental rehearsal and imagery in sport Going through the phases of the performance • Mental rehearsal can be used by a sports performer to focus on and correct specific skills or stages of an event. • To use this technique you need to picture yourself carry out a skill or during an event in your mind. • Focus on performing the skills or taking part in the event successfully, this can help a sports person to correctly perform skills in a ‘real’ situation. Cambridge Nationals Level 1/2 Sport Science Unit R 044 © OCR 2021

Learning outcome 5 – be able to apply sport psychology strategies to enhance sports

Learning outcome 5 – be able to apply sport psychology strategies to enhance sports performance Visualising positive outcomes • By using imagery, a psychological technique, the sports performer can imagine themselves being successful • To use this technique you need to imagine or picture yourself performing a skill or technique successfully • You could think about a time where you were successful before or a time where you weren’t successful, and you could reimagine it with a positive outcome. Refocusing • This technique is used by sports people to focus again, in a different way about a situation or event • By thinking about and refocusing on a skill with a positive outcome the sports performer will believe that they can carry out the skill successfully. Cambridge Nationals Level 1/2 Sport Science Unit R 044 © OCR 2021

Learning outcome 5 – be able to apply sport psychology strategies to enhance sports

Learning outcome 5 – be able to apply sport psychology strategies to enhance sports performance The use of mental rehearsal and imagery in sport Activity: Give an example for how a sports performer can use each of the following to improve their sports performance: • • • Going through the phases of the performance Visualising positive outcomes Refocusing. Make sure that your example describes what the sports person would do, name the skill or technique and the spot they are participating in. Cambridge Nationals Level 1/2 Sport Science Unit R 044 © OCR 2021

Learning outcome 5 – be able to apply sport psychology strategies to enhance sports

Learning outcome 5 – be able to apply sport psychology strategies to enhance sports performance The use of relaxation techniques in sport Breathing control and regulation • • • Breathing is a physical process carried out automatically by our brain Breathing affects your body Your brain and your body are linked, by controlling your breathing you can help to control how you feel, how aroused you might feel By controlling your breathing, you can control your arousal You may have noticed that when you are anxious or over aroused you breathe quick, short breaths Taking deep, long breaths can help to lower your arousal. Try this… Take a few quick short breaths – how does it make you feel? Then try taking a few deep, long breaths – how does it make you feel? Cambridge Nationals Level 1/2 Sport Science Unit R 044 © OCR 2021

Learning outcome 5 – be able to apply sport psychology strategies to enhance sports

Learning outcome 5 – be able to apply sport psychology strategies to enhance sports performance The use of relaxation techniques in sport Releasing tension in muscles • • When you are anxious and over aroused your muscles will become stiff and tight By reducing the tension in your muscles you can help to relieve anxiety and arousal. Think about… What effect could muscle tension have on a sports performer before a competition. Cambridge Nationals Level 1/2 Sport Science Unit R 044 © OCR 2021

Learning outcome 5 – be able to apply sport psychology strategies to enhance sports

Learning outcome 5 – be able to apply sport psychology strategies to enhance sports performance How to apply appropriate strategies for specific subjects • • • Use tests, questionnaires, observations to give a benchmark (a starting point which can be used to measure changes) Identify strengths and areas for improvement Agree aims and goals with the sports performer (subject). Think about… What information do you need from the sports person (subject) before you can select strategies for them? Cambridge Nationals Level 1/2 Sport Science Unit R 044 © OCR 2021

Learning outcome 5 – be able to apply sport psychology strategies to enhance sports

Learning outcome 5 – be able to apply sport psychology strategies to enhance sports performance How to assess whether strategies have had an impact on sports performance Pre and post-testing and basic measures of performance • Results collected before the strategies are applied and again after it has been completed • Tests could include SCAT test to identify the level of arousal/anxiety • Fitness or skill tests to show the current level of ability. Task: For a sport of your choice select suitable pre and post tests. Cambridge Nationals Level 1/2 Sport Science Unit R 044 © OCR 2021

Learning outcome 5 – be able to apply sport psychology strategies to enhance sports

Learning outcome 5 – be able to apply sport psychology strategies to enhance sports performance How to assess whether strategies have had an impact on sports performance Observation • • • Are the strategies working? You can monitor the success of the strategies you have recommend by observing the sports performer You could carry out observations during training and in competitive situations You could observe how the performer uses the strategies You can observe if the strategies are having any impact on sports performance. Cambridge Nationals Level 1/2 Sport Science Unit R 044 © OCR 2021

Learning outcome 5 – be able to apply sport psychology strategies to enhance sports

Learning outcome 5 – be able to apply sport psychology strategies to enhance sports performance How to assess whether strategies have had an impact on sports performance Evaluation of strategies • Were the goals, SMART targets, successful and did the sports performer meet their goals? • Use the test results and observations carried out before the strategies were applied to identify any impacts on sports performance • Assess whether any of the strategies were more successful than others • Discuss the strategies applied with the sports performer and analyse their assessment of the impact on their sports performance. Task: You could use a role play scenario to evaluate the strategies used by the sports performer to improve their performance. Cambridge Nationals Level 1/2 Sport Science Unit R 044 © OCR 2021

Sport Science Unit R 044 – Sport psychology By completing this unit, you will

Sport Science Unit R 044 – Sport psychology By completing this unit, you will have looked at some of the key elements of sport psychology and used some of the strategies and techniques utilised in pursuit of excellence in sports performance. Cambridge Nationals Level 1/2 Sport Science Unit R 044 © OCR 2021

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