Cal Water2 MISR and Air MSPI Cal Water

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Cal. Water-2, MISR, and Air. MSPI Cal. Water 2015 Planning Workship La Jolla, CA

Cal. Water-2, MISR, and Air. MSPI Cal. Water 2015 Planning Workship La Jolla, CA 23 April 2014 D. J. Diner, M. G. Tosca, M. J. Garay, O. V. Kalashnikova, and F. Xu Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology © 2014 California Institute of Technology. Government sponsorship acknowledged.

Multi-angle Imaging Spectro. Radiometer (MISR) Airborne Multiangle Spectro. Polarimetric Imager (Air. MSPI) 446, 558,

Multi-angle Imaging Spectro. Radiometer (MISR) Airborne Multiangle Spectro. Polarimetric Imager (Air. MSPI) 446, 558, 672, 866 nm 355, 380, 445, 470*, 555, 660*, 865*, 935 nm (*polarimetric) Flying on Terra since 1999 705 km flight altitude Multiangle viewing between ± 70º Spatial resolution: 275 m Flying on NASA ER-2 since 2010 20 km flight altitude Multiangle viewing between ± 67º Spatial resolution: 10 m 1

Dust source characterization - 1 Transport models such as NAAPS predict dust trajectories, but

Dust source characterization - 1 Transport models such as NAAPS predict dust trajectories, but need reliable source locations and emission strengths Plume height 3 km 2 km 1 km 0 km ASIA: MISR 9 -angle animation and stereo retrieval of dust plume height in Gobi Desert, 30 March 2007 MIDDLE EAST: Increasing prevalence of sandstorms 2

Dust source characterization - 2 AFRICA 0. 02 0. 4 0. 6 0. 8

Dust source characterization - 2 AFRICA 0. 02 0. 4 0. 6 0. 8 1. 0 0. 01 Aerosol Optical Depth (558 nm) AOD retrieval over bright land areas 0. 12 0. 24 0. 36 0. 48 Nonspherical Aerosol Optical Depth Fraction Particle shape discrimination 0. 60 0. 1 0. 6 1. 3 1. 9 2. 6 >3. 2 Frequency of Wind Speeds Greater Than 20 m/s Cloud- and plume-tracked wind retrievals MISR CAPABILITY 3

MISR aerosol observations over CA Central Valley Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) Map of Central

MISR aerosol observations over CA Central Valley Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) Map of Central California from 20 January 2013 showing MISR retrievals of AOD at 4. 4 km resolution. Diamonds are ground-based AERONET DRAGON sites colored by AOD. Regression plot is also shown. 4

Example Air. MSPI aerosol retrieval during SEAC 4 RS Southern Arkansas, 23 Aug 2013,

Example Air. MSPI aerosol retrieval during SEAC 4 RS Southern Arkansas, 23 Aug 2013, 1617 UTC Elevated, transported smoke present in scene 29. 1º view zenith angle Degree of linear polarization 470, 660, 865 nm 4 STAR sunphotometer on DC-8: Mean and stdev over 30 min window Wavelength (nm) Single scattering albedo Aerosol optical depth Radiance 445, 555, 660 nm Air. MSPI: Spatial mean Aerosol and stdev over retrievals run at JPL using entire scene Univ. of Lille GRASP code, courtesy O. Dubovik Wavelength (nm) 5

Polarimetric sensitivity to aerosol particle size Monomodal aerosol model Median particle radius 0. 06

Polarimetric sensitivity to aerosol particle size Monomodal aerosol model Median particle radius 0. 06 mm Both models are consistent with MISR radiance-only data. Air. MSPI polarimetry distinguishes them model observations Bimodal aerosol model 40% fine mode, median particle radius = 0. 03 mm 60% coarse mode, median particle radius = 1. 00 mm Aerosol bow due to larger particles in model— not seen in degree of linear polarization (DOLP MISR image off the California coast, 19 July 2012 6

AR cloud height and wind retrievals from MISR m/s 21 Dec 2010 SSMI Water

AR cloud height and wind retrievals from MISR m/s 21 Dec 2010 SSMI Water Vapor Imagery (yellows, reds = high vapor content) mid-level clouds low clouds MISR heightresolved wind vectors show details of the flow within landfalling atmospheric rivers high clouds height (m) 7

Cloud height and wind retrievals from Air. MSPI flight transects across atmospheric rivers will

Cloud height and wind retrievals from Air. MSPI flight transects across atmospheric rivers will allow simultaneous retrieval of cloud height and wind speed at high spatial resolution (~100 m) As with MISR, stereo retrievals are purely geometric no dependence on atmospheric temperature profile accurate height assignments of winds 26. 5º forward: 19: 44 UTC Nadir: 19: 45 UTC 26. 5º backward: 19: 46 UTC 8

Air. MSPI cloud-top drop size retrieval over warm clouds glory 6 August 2013 1859

Air. MSPI cloud-top drop size retrieval over warm clouds glory 6 August 2013 1859 UTC supernumerary bows The cloudbow, primary glory, and cloudbow supernumerary bows indicate spherical drops Offset peaks cause colored fringes An effective droplet radius of 12 mm fits the data well 9

Identification of ice clouds in polarized light from Air. MSPI scattering angle of subsun

Identification of ice clouds in polarized light from Air. MSPI scattering angle of subsun Absence of glory or cloudbows indicates nonspherical particles. Subsun implies horizontally-oriented ice crystal plates. 1 February 2013 Polarized radiance vs. scattering angle 2111 UTC optical depth and crystal habit (Chepfer et al. , 1998; van Diedenhoven et al. , 2012, Cole et al. , 2013) Cloud Physics Lidar (CPL) data show a high-altitude cloud layer above lower cloud credit: J. Yorks, W. Hart 10

Conclusions MISR multiangle radiance and Air. MSPI multiangle radiance/polarization observations provide contextual aerosol and

Conclusions MISR multiangle radiance and Air. MSPI multiangle radiance/polarization observations provide contextual aerosol and cloud microphysics, height, and wind data to complement other Cal. Water measurements • These data provide environmental constraints on factors governing precipitation rates • The combination of MISR, Air. MSPI, and CALIPSO could be used to improve optical models of transported Pacific dust A second-generation instrument, Air. MSPI-2, is being readied for initial flights in fall 2014. Air. MSPI-2 adds O 2 A-band shortwave infrared (SWIR) channels • Multiangle O 2 A-band observations are sensitive to cloud geometric thickness • SWIR channels enable MODIS-like joint retrievals of cloud optical depth and particle size 11