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CAKES AND ICINGS The Richest and the Sweetest of Baking
Cakes Require as much precision as breads. High in fat and sugar. Light and delicate, yet strong enough to support their own structure. Cakes can be presented in many forms. Simple to elaborate. The perfect dessert for any occasion.
Mixing Methods and Cakes Types High Fat or Shortened Cakes Creaming Method. Two stage or blending method. Low Fat or Foam Type Cakes Foaming or Sponge Method
Creaming Method Conventional Method - Used for most butter cakes 1. Scale ingredients. Ingredients should be at room temperature. Dry ingredients should be sifted. 2. Place the fat in the mixing bowl, beat until the fat is smooth and creamy. 3. Add the sugar. Continue to cream until the mixture is smooth and creamy. (Melted chocolate is added during creaming. ) 4. Add the eggs, one at a time, or in small increments. Beat between each addition to add air and increase the creaminess. (The mixture will be light and fluffy. ) 5. Scape down the sides of the bowl to ensure even mixing.
Creaming Method Continued 6. Add the sifted dry ingredients and the liquids. a. Add 1/4 of the dry ingredients. Mix until blended. b. Add 1/3 of the liquid. Mix until blended. c. Repeat until all ingredients are used. d. Scrape down the sides of the bowl during each addition. 7. This ensures that the liquid and the dry ingredients are absorbed properly. (Cocoa is sifted with the flour)
High ratio shortening is softer and spread easier through a batter. Quickly coats sugar and flour particles. 1. Two Stage Method The blending method developed to be used with high ratio shortenings. Scale all ingredients. Ingredients should be at room temperature. 2. Sift the flour, salt, powder, soda into the mixing bowl and add the fat. Mix for 4 minutes at medium speed. Scape bowl at least once. (Add melted chocolate at this point. ) 3. Sift the remaining dry ingredients into the bowl. This is usually the sugar and any other dry flavourings. ) Add part of the water or milk. 4. Blend on low speed for 3 to 5 minutes, scraping down sides of bowl. 5. Add the remaining liquids and the eggs. (Eggs should be lightly beaten with the liquids 6. Add in three additions, scraping the bowl after
Foaming or Sponge Method Leavening of egg foam cakes depends on the air trapped inside due to the beating of the eggs. Contain little or no shortening. The basic method for foam cakes is separated into foaming method and the angel food method.
Foaming/Sponge Method 1. Scale all ingredients. Ingredients should be at room temperature. Butter should be melted and combined with the liquid. 2. Combine the eggs and the sugar and warm to 43°C (110 F). Superior volume is achieved when the product is warm, not hot. i. Stir the egg/sugar mixture over a hot water bath. ii. Warm the sugar on a sheet pan in the oven. (Not too hot). Gradually beat it into the eggs. 3. Using the wire whip, whip the eggs/sugar mixture on high speed until light and thick. The mixture will become quite pale in color.
Foaming/Sponge Method 4. Sift the flour with any other dry ingredients, such as cornstarch or baking powder 5. Fold in the sifted flour, do not deflate the foam. (This may be done by hand or with a utensil, such as a rubber spatula. ) 6. Fold in the butter-liquid mixture, if called for, at this time. DO NOT OVER MIX 7. IMMEDIATELY pan and bake the batter. Delays cause volume loss. Variation - Egg yolks and whites can be separated. Whip the yolks with part of the sugar until foamy. Whip the whites with the remaining sugar until stiff or foamy as indicated in the formula. Fold in the whites after step 5.
Angel Food Method Egg white foams that contain no fat, beating of the egg whites is the key to this method. 1. Scale all, room temperature, ingredients. 2. Sift the flour with half the sugar. (The flour mixes more evenly with the foam. ) 3. Beat the egg whites to soft peaks, with the whip attachment. (Add salt and cream of tartar at the beginning of this process) 4. Beat in the sugar that was not added to the flour. Whip until soft glossy peaks. DO NOT OVER MIX. 5. Fold in the flour-sugar mixture, until it is absorbed, but no more. 6. Pan and bake immediately.
Chiffon Method - Based on Egg White Foam A batter of flour, egg yolks, vegetable oil, and water are folded 1. into foamed whites. Scalethe all, room temperature, ingredients. Use good quality, flavorless oil. 2. Sift the dry ingredients, with part of the sugar, into the mixing bowl. 3. Mix at medium speed, gradually adding the oil, egg yolks, water, and liquid flavoring. (Scrape down the side of the bowl periodically. ) Mix until smooth. 4. Whip egg whites to soft peaks. 5. Add cream of tartar and remaining sugar, mix until firm, moist peaks. 6. Fold the whipped egg whites into the flour mixture. 7. Pan in ungreased tube pans or layer pans with parchment on the bottom.
Prepared Mixes contain all the ingredients except water and possibly eggs. They contain emulsifiers to ensure even blending. Due to the processing of the mix, mixes produce cakes that have excellent volume, texture and tenderness. Taste of scratch cakes vs mixes is a matter of opinion. Scratch cakes are only as good as the baker.
Mixing Method & Cake Formula The mixing method depends of the cake formula and the balance of ingredients. The baker can determine by the ingredients in the formula, which method to use. FAT IS HIGH - use creaming or two-stage FAT IS LOW/EGGS & SUGAR HIGH - use an egg foam method.
High Fat Cakes Creaming Method or Two Stage Depend on air for leavening. Two Stage Method. Faster Good volume and lightness Velvety texture and tenderness Shortening adds no flavor. Flour is mixed longer, therefore; Sugar % must be higher to tenderize. Use emulsified shortening to blend thoroughly to decrease toughness.
Creaming Method More labor intensive method. Used formulas that call for butter. Butter adds flavor and melt in the mouth texture. Shortening does not melt in your mouth.
Low Fat Cakes The foaming action of the eggs provides the leavening. Sponge-type cakes have a springy texture and are tougher than shortened cakes. Used in desserts that require more handling to assemble, such as tortes and cakes with many layers. Sponge layers are moistened with flavored syrup to make up for the lack of moisture. Sponge sheets are made with shortening so they do not crack when rolled. Weak flour is used to avoid making the cake tough.
Scaling and Panning Always prepare pans before mixing batters, to ensure minimal delay when baking.
1. For high-fat cakes, the bottoms of layer pans must be greased with a commercial pan greasing product. OR grease the pan with shortening and dust with flour. OR Line the pan bottom with parchment, cut to fit the pan. Grease and dust the sides of the pan. (Use a small dab of shortening to stop the paper from moving when the batter is poured in. ) 2. Line the bottom of sheet pans with greased parchment paper. 3. Do not grease angel food pans, as the bater must cling to the sides to rise. 4. For sponge cakes with a small fat content, grease the bottom, but not the sides, as it needs to cling a bit, yet is more difficult to remove from the pan.
Baking and Cooling The cake structure is fragile - Proper baking conditions are essential
Baking Preheat the oven. Some large ovens take a long time to preheat. Check oven shelves for security and spacing. Allow for circulation - pans should not touch one another. Bake at correct temperature. Do not increase heat for quicker baking. Check oven temperatures regularly. Do not open the oven door until finished rising and browned.
Testing for Doneness 1. Shortened cakes shrink away from the pan slightly. 2. The center of a cake will spring back when done. 3. A cake tester, wooden skewer, or thin knife blade, comes out clean.
Cooling and Removing from Pans 1. Cool layer cakes and sheet cakes 15 minutes in pans before turning out. When they are too hot they are fragile and may break. 2. Turn our layer cakes onto racks to finish cooling/ 3. Turning out sheet pans Sprinkle top lightly with sugar or cover with layer of parchment. Set an empty pan on top, bottom side down. Flip both pans over together. Remove top pan and peel off used parchment. 4. Cool angel food cakes in pans, upside down on work surface. Support the pans so the cake does not touch the work surface. Remove carefully when cool.