Byzantine Empire The New Rome Roman Empire split

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Byzantine Empire “The New Rome”

Byzantine Empire “The New Rome”

Ø Roman Empire split in 395 C. E. Ø Constantinople became the center for

Ø Roman Empire split in 395 C. E. Ø Constantinople became the center for trade and cultural diffusion l Strategically located where Europe meets Asia

Geography of Constantinople Ø Easy to defend l l Surrounded on most sides by

Geography of Constantinople Ø Easy to defend l l Surrounded on most sides by water-easy to spot incoming invasion Wall to protect side that bordered land Wa ll

“New Rome” Ø Emperors were Roman Ø They originally spoke Latin (later adopted the

“New Rome” Ø Emperors were Roman Ø They originally spoke Latin (later adopted the Greek language) Ø Developed Orthodox Religion Ø Between 500 -1200 CE, one of the most advanced civilizations in the world

Eastern Rome will be ruled by… Ø https: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=H_ 2 E

Eastern Rome will be ruled by… Ø https: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=H_ 2 E 0 Rx. VHH 4&list=PLEb 6 s. GT 7 o. D 8 HLp PQ 0 N 4 UTm. Tt. Plp. Xf. Jias&index=1

Justinian Became emperor in 527 CE Ø Set up a panel of 10 experts

Justinian Became emperor in 527 CE Ø Set up a panel of 10 experts to compile a law code “Justinian Code” l Became the foundation of law in most Western European countries l Compilation of early Roman laws and legal principals Ø

Ø He conquered Italy, Northern Africa, and Spain Ø This proved costly for the

Ø He conquered Italy, Northern Africa, and Spain Ø This proved costly for the empire l l Exhausted funds and resources Empire was lost within a generation

Theodora Justinian’s wife Ø Focused on improving social status of women Ø Was considered

Theodora Justinian’s wife Ø Focused on improving social status of women Ø Was considered a pioneer of feminism Ø

Hagia Sophia Ø Church rebuilt by Justinian Ø Used arches and pillars to make

Hagia Sophia Ø Church rebuilt by Justinian Ø Used arches and pillars to make a dome ceiling Ø Filled with mosaics Ø http: //www. 3 dmekanlar. com/en/hagia- sophia. html

Hagia Sophia

Hagia Sophia

Use of the arch

Use of the arch

Art- mosaics Theodora and her court

Art- mosaics Theodora and her court

Hippodrome Offered chariot races and circus acts Ø Nika (Nike) Revolts Ø l l

Hippodrome Offered chariot races and circus acts Ø Nika (Nike) Revolts Ø l l Chariot races became political Riots broke out against Justinian in 532 with each side demanding blood from the other and then both attempting to overthrow Justinian Building of the Hippodrome https: //www. youtube. com/wa tch? v=Ajrnv. Dn 2 tc. A Nika Revolt https: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=ei 7 UKr. NDI 4 Q

Conflict with Muslims Ø Islam rises in the 600 s and begins to expand

Conflict with Muslims Ø Islam rises in the 600 s and begins to expand Ø Threatens the Byzantines l 639 -Muslims take over Syria and Egypt 9 63 2 63

Muslim Conquest Ø In 1453, the Ottoman Turks conquered Constantinople. Ø Renamed the city,

Muslim Conquest Ø In 1453, the Ottoman Turks conquered Constantinople. Ø Renamed the city, Istanbul. Ø Hagia Sophia was changed from a Christian church to a Muslim mosque.

The Church Divides Ø In 730, Emperor Leo III (Byz) banned the use of

The Church Divides Ø In 730, Emperor Leo III (Byz) banned the use of icons Ø Iconoclasts (icon breakers) broke into churches to destroy images Ø Tension between churches grew for years Ø In 1054, the pope and patriarch (bishop of the East) excommunicated each other Ø 1204 -Constantinople sacked by Catholic crusaders-split solidified

Ø Schism- permanent split of the Christian Church l l Roman Catholic in the

Ø Schism- permanent split of the Christian Church l l Roman Catholic in the West Eastern Orthodox in the East Blue/Purple. Roman Catholic Red- Eastern Orthodox Green- Islam

Schism Roman Catholic Service in Latin Ø Pope had authority over bishops Ø Pope

Schism Roman Catholic Service in Latin Ø Pope had authority over bishops Ø Pope claims authority over all kings and emperors Ø Priests may NOT marry Ø Divorce is NOT permitted Ø Eastern Orthodox Services in Greek Ø Patriarchs and bishops head the church together Ø Emperor claims authority over church Ø Priests may marry Ø Divorce is allowed Ø

Converting the Slavs (Russia) Ø Saint Methodius and St. Cyril Ø Invented Cyrillic alphabet

Converting the Slavs (Russia) Ø Saint Methodius and St. Cyril Ø Invented Cyrillic alphabet l Vernacular bible The early Cyrillic alphabet А Б В Г Д Є Ж Ѕ З И І К Л М Н О П Ҁ Р С Т Ѹ Ф Х Ѡ Ц Ч Ш Щ Ъ ЪІ Ь Ѣ Ю ІА Ѧ Ѩ Ѫ Ѭ Ѯ Ѱ Ѳ Ѵ Ѥ https: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=vv. E 12 ZQxcd. I

Early Russia

Early Russia

Russia’s Birth Ø In AD 880 - Kiev was settled by the Slavs along

Russia’s Birth Ø In AD 880 - Kiev was settled by the Slavs along the Dnieper River l allowing trade with Constantinople (Byzantines!)

Vikings and Slavs- original inhabitants of Russia Ø At first, Vikings sold the Slavs

Vikings and Slavs- original inhabitants of Russia Ø At first, Vikings sold the Slavs (origin of the word slave) Ø Later, Viking nobles (boyars) intermarried and adopted Slavic culture Ø

Vladimir & Russia Convert to Eastern Christianity (Orthodox) Vladimir sent expeditions to look at

Vladimir & Russia Convert to Eastern Christianity (Orthodox) Vladimir sent expeditions to look at all major religions Ø He was impressed with the Hagia Sophia in Constantinople Ø Vladimir converted to Christianity (Greek Orthodox) Ø He ordered a mass baptism in the Dnieper River in 989 Ø

Yaroslav the Wise Ø Yaroslav issued the first code of laws for Kiev (focused

Yaroslav the Wise Ø Yaroslav issued the first code of laws for Kiev (focused on property)

Ivan III and the “Third Rome” Ø Took Russia back from Mongols Ø Took

Ivan III and the “Third Rome” Ø Took Russia back from Mongols Ø Took title “czar” which is the Russia form of Caesar Ø Claimed Russia to be the Third Rome l l Who’s the first Rome? Who’s the second Rome?

Let’s Review! Ø https: //schoolhistory. co. uk/games/the- byzantine-empire-walk-the-plank-game/ Ø Who will win? Teacher or

Let’s Review! Ø https: //schoolhistory. co. uk/games/the- byzantine-empire-walk-the-plank-game/ Ø Who will win? Teacher or students? ?