Buyer alone q CrossFunction Teams Sourcing team Supplier

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新采购管理实务 供應商由誰負責評選? Buyer alone (採購人員) q Cross-Function Teams (跨功能小組) - Sourcing team - Supplier

新采购管理实务 供應商由誰負責評選? Buyer alone (採購人員) q Cross-Function Teams (跨功能小組) - Sourcing team - Supplier performance evaluation team - Supplier certification team - New product development team q Commodity Teams (商品小組) q CAPM_2002

新采购管理实务 供應商評選的項目 Ability to perform q 財務狀況 Financial status q 成本系統 Cost system q

新采购管理实务 供應商評選的項目 Ability to perform q 財務狀況 Financial status q 成本系統 Cost system q 品質系統 Quality assurance, quality control, and related systems q 組織與管理 Organization and management q 勞 狀況 Labor status q 執行合約能力 CAPM_2002

新采购管理实务 執行合約能力 Ability to perform q 對買方訂單金額及採購數量是 q q q 否有興趣 Frequency and/or volume

新采购管理实务 執行合約能力 Ability to perform q 對買方訂單金額及採購數量是 q q q 否有興趣 Frequency and/or volume of orders 供應商處理訂單的時間 Length of time to process orders 交貨能力(產能是否足夠或不足) Delivery 符合品質要求的能力 Quality 採購項目是否為其核心能力 Product/service expertise 訂單積壓狀況 Order backlog q 自製與外包的狀況 q q q q CAPM_2002 Contractor's "make or buy" program 循環/前置時間 Cycle/lead time 生產力 Productivity 彈性,配合度如何(對暴增訂單 的回應能力) Flexibility 業界口碑 References 電子化能力 Electronic capabilities 產品線廣度 Breadth of product line 可利用的產能 Available capacity

新采购管理实务 財務狀況 Financial Status q 資產負債表 Balance sheets 企業體質 q 損益表 Income statements 經營能力

新采购管理实务 財務狀況 Financial Status q 資產負債表 Balance sheets 企業體質 q 損益表 Income statements 經營能力 q 各種財務比率 Financial Ratio q 成本控制紀錄 Cost control history q 信用評等 Credit ratings q 公司年度報告 Certified annual reports q 鄧白氏報告 Dun & Bradstreet reports q 觀察供應商是否有倒閉危機的「Z 積分 (Z Score)」 CAPM_2002

新采购管理实务 成本系統 Cost System q 是否有能力依照產生成本的特定作業活動為基 準,來分攤間接成本 Capability of segregating costs by task q

新采购管理实务 成本系統 Cost System q 是否有能力依照產生成本的特定作業活動為基 準,來分攤間接成本 Capability of segregating costs by task q 對成本項目的處理是否一致 Consistent treatment of cost q 是否符合成本會計原則 Compliance with cost accounting standards q 是否有任何成本降低的計劃 What steps has the supplier taken, if any, to reduce costs CAPM_2002

新采购管理实务 品質系統 QC, QA, & Related Systems q 接受與退貨的紀錄 Acceptance/rejection history q 測試的能力 Testing

新采购管理实务 品質系統 QC, QA, & Related Systems q 接受與退貨的紀錄 Acceptance/rejection history q 測試的能力 Testing capability q q q - 作業員 Workers / 機器設備 Machines 製程控制 Process control - 統計製程管制 SPC/統計品質管制 SQC - 六個標準差 Six Sigma/ 製程能力 Cp. K Process Bands 品管(保)組織 Organization and management of quality systems 品管(保) 文件與程序 Documented systems/procedures 品質系統認證/驗證 System certification/validation 製程認證 Process certification (ISO) CAPM_2002

新采购管理实务 全面品質管理 TQM q 品質是每一個人的責任 (Everybody’s responsibility) q 組織內的每一個人都要實行並積極的參與所有 品質相關的活動 (Commitment and Active participation)

新采购管理实务 全面品質管理 TQM q 品質是每一個人的責任 (Everybody’s responsibility) q 組織內的每一個人都要實行並積極的參與所有 品質相關的活動 (Commitment and Active participation) q 達到品質的持續改善 (Continuous Improvement) q 滿足客戶的需求 (Customer Satisfaction) CAPM_2002

新采购管理实务 F F 品保系統 Quality Assurance Defect Detection System (不 良品偵測的系統) - 會有一些重複性的檢驗 (inspection)產生。

新采购管理实务 F F 品保系統 Quality Assurance Defect Detection System (不 良品偵測的系統) - 會有一些重複性的檢驗 (inspection)產生。 - 檢驗樣品的數量一般都很 大。 - 不良品只能在檢驗後被發 現。 Defect Prevention System ( 不良品預防的系統) - 利用統計製程管制SPC - 製程可透過反饋方式進行 自我校正 INPUT Process A Process B INSPECT OUTPUT • Rework • Scrap SPC INPUT CAPM_2002 Process A SPC Process B OUTPUT

新采购管理实务 製程能力分析 Process Capability Analysis LSL Cp = Cpk Variation - Good Centering -

新采购管理实务 製程能力分析 Process Capability Analysis LSL Cp = Cpk Variation - Good Centering - Good Cp, Cpk > 1. 33 Cp = Cpk Variation - Poor Centering - Good Cp, Cpk < 1 Cp > Cpk Variation - Good Centering - Poor Cp > 1. 33 Cpk = 0 Cp > Cpk Variation - Poor Centering - Poor Cp, Cpk < 1 USL LSL CAPM_2002 USL

新采购管理实务 SIX SIGMA 六標準差 q SIX SIGMA - A program that permits only three

新采购管理实务 SIX SIGMA 六標準差 q SIX SIGMA - A program that permits only three (3) defects per million parts and reflects an outstanding commitment to quality. q 六標準差 - 在每百萬件中只允許三個不良品, 是對品質最高的承諾。 #207: Develop measurements for quality improvement and target setting (e. g. , "best in class" benchmarks). ; C. P. M. Module: 2 #111: Conduct supplier visits/evaluations to determine suitability. ; C. P. M. Module: 1 CAPM_2002

新采购管理实务 z 2 3 4 5 6 6 Measurement Defect per Million 308, 537

新采购管理实务 z 2 3 4 5 6 6 Measurement Defect per Million 308, 537 66, 807 6, 210 233 3. 4 CAPM_2002 3 6 20, 000 Times Improvement

新采购管理实务 SIX SIGMA PERFORMANCE 99% Good (3. 8 Sigma) q 20, 000 lost articles

新采购管理实务 SIX SIGMA PERFORMANCE 99% Good (3. 8 Sigma) q 20, 000 lost articles of mail per q q hour Unsafe drinking water for almost 15 minutes each day 5, 000 incorrect surgical operations per week Two short or long landings at most major airports each day 200, 000 wrong drug prescriptions each year 99. 99966% Good (6 Sigma) q Seven articles lost per hour q One unsafe minute every seven months q 1. 7 incorrect operations per week q One short or long landing every five years q 68 wrong prescriptions per year CAPM_2002

新采购管理实务 SIX SIGMA CONCEPT Target Before 3 Customer’s Specification 6. 6% Defects! 1 After

新采购管理实务 SIX SIGMA CONCEPT Target Before 3 Customer’s Specification 6. 6% Defects! 1 After 6 ! 2 3 Target Customer’s Specification Reducing Variability 1 No Defects! 3 6 CAPM_2002

新采购管理实务 組織與管理 Organization and management q 高級主管的承諾與參予 Top management q q q q commitment

新采购管理实务 組織與管理 Organization and management q 高級主管的承諾與參予 Top management q q q q commitment and involvement 公司組織的穩定性 Stability 員 的訓練 Training and certification of personnel 員 年資與技術能力 Technical competence/service support 機器設備的新舊及保養情況 Equipment capabilities 此供應商在同業之間的評價與口碑 General reputation/ethics 業界的地位 Industry status 對客戶滿意度的認知 Customer commitment 對其衛星 廠的管理 Subcontractor management CAPM_2002

新采购管理实务 勞 狀況 Labor status q 員 的平均年齡及技術層次 Employee skills q 會組織情況 Unionization q

新采购管理实务 勞 狀況 Labor status q 員 的平均年齡及技術層次 Employee skills q 會組織情況 Unionization q 會合約到期日 Labor contract expiration date q 員 的流動率 Employee turnover q 對員 的訓練計劃 Training programs and initiatives q 業相關政策的遵守 Industrial relations policy CAPM_2002

新采购管理实务 貨商評選 Ability to perform F 財務狀況 Financial status F 成本系統 Cost system F

新采购管理实务 貨商評選 Ability to perform F 財務狀況 Financial status F 成本系統 Cost system F 品質系統 Quality assurance, quality control, and related systems F 組織與管理 Organization and management F 勞 狀況 Labor status F 執行合約能力 CAPM_2002

新采购管理实务 q q q q q 供應廠商評等的用途 衡量供應商的能力 Supplier capabilities 衡量供應商的國際化與當地交貨能力 International and local

新采购管理实务 q q q q q 供應廠商評等的用途 衡量供應商的能力 Supplier capabilities 衡量供應商的國際化與當地交貨能力 International and local capabilities 定價方法 Pricing methods 衡量供應商財務健全與否 Financial strength 倉儲的位置 Inventory locations and methods 交貨績效 Delivery performance 品質紀錄 Quality history 服務紀錄 Service history 利潤率與存貨週轉率 Margin performance and inventory turnover 創新的紀錄與績效 Innovation history and performance CAPM_2002

新采购管理实务 供應商管理的要件 Defect Prevention Cycle Time & Lead Time elivery uality ervice ost Open

新采购管理实务 供應商管理的要件 Defect Prevention Cycle Time & Lead Time elivery uality ervice ost Open Book Management Responsiveness CAPM_2002

新采购管理实务 供應廠商評等法 Performance Rating Methods F 項目列舉法 Categorical method F 加權指數法 Weighted-Factor method F

新采购管理实务 供應廠商評等法 Performance Rating Methods F 項目列舉法 Categorical method F 加權指數法 Weighted-Factor method F 成本比率法 Cost-Ratio methods CAPM_2002

新采购管理实务 加權指數法範例. . . Weighted Factor Analysis - Price Weighted Bid Rating Price Supplier

新采购管理实务 加權指數法範例. . . Weighted Factor Analysis - Price Weighted Bid Rating Price Supplier A $59 Supplier B $63 Supplier C $70 Direct Price Average Comparison* 59/59 = 100. 0% 59/63 = 93. 7% 59/70 = 84. 3% Factor = 50. 0 = 46. 8 = 42. 1 x 0. 50 * Lowest price offered/Actual price paid (以最低報價為分子) Weighted Factor Analysis - Quality Total Shipments Received Supplier A 65 Supplier B 35 Supplier C 45 Total Shipments Percent Rejected Accepted 6 90. 8% 0 100. 0% 2 95. 6% CAPM_2002 Weighted Average Factor x 0. 30 Rating = 27. 2 = 30. 0 = 28. 7

新采购管理实务 加權指數法範例. . . Weighted Factor Analysis - Delivery Total Weighted Shipments Percent. Average.

新采购管理实务 加權指數法範例. . . Weighted Factor Analysis - Delivery Total Weighted Shipments Percent. Average. Rating Received Late On Time. Factor Supplier A 65 13 80. 0% x 0. 20 = 16. 0 Supplier B 35 2 94. 3% x 0. 20 = 18. 9 Supplier C 45 7 84. 4% x 0. 20 = 16. 9 Final Step: Weighted Factor Analysis - Total Rating Price Quality. Delivery Rating + Rating = Overall Rating Supplier A 50. 0 + 27. 2 + 16. 0 = 93. 2 【 2】 Supplier B 46. 8 + 30. 0 + 18. 9 = 95. 7 【 1】 Supplier C 42. 1 + 28. 7 + 16. 9 = 87. 7 【 3】 CAPM_2002

新采购管理实务 成本比率法範例 (續) The Service Cost Ratio: Weight 30 25 25 20 100% Supplier

新采购管理实务 成本比率法範例 (續) The Service Cost Ratio: Weight 30 25 25 20 100% Supplier A 40 30 30 15 115% (-15) 1. 交貨成本比率 2. 品質成本比率 3. 服務成本比率 對報價的影響: Supplier A +4. 2 +6. 0 -15. 0 -4. 8 Supplier B +4. 3 +5. 4 +10. 0 +19. 7 Applying the Formula: (1 + 總成本比率)× 報價 = 調整後的報價 Supplier A: Supplier B: ( 1 + [-. 048] ) x 5. 00 ( 1 +. 197 ) x 4. 00 1. 現場服務的表現 2. 研發能力 3. 供應商地理位置 4. 倉儲容量 比率總計: 對價格的影響: The Overall Cost Ratio: CAPM_2002 Supplier B 30 25 20 15 90% (+10) = $4. 76 = $4. 79

新采购管理实务 評等結果被扭曲的可能原因 Factors that can distort ratings F 資料不正確 Inaccurate data F 加權指數不恰當 Improper

新采购管理实务 評等結果被扭曲的可能原因 Factors that can distort ratings F 資料不正確 Inaccurate data F 加權指數不恰當 Improper weighting of factors F 主觀因素 Subjectivity CAPM_2002

新采购管理实务 供應廠商評等結果發佈 Issues in the dissemination of ratings F 機密性 Confidentiality F 供應商對評等結果的反應處理 reaction

新采购管理实务 供應廠商評等結果發佈 Issues in the dissemination of ratings F 機密性 Confidentiality F 供應商對評等結果的反應處理 reaction to ratings CAPM_2002 Supplier

新采购管理实务 電腦化的材料管理系統 Using department Computer Printed purchase requisition MRP schedule Hand-written requisition Review by

新采购管理实务 電腦化的材料管理系統 Using department Computer Printed purchase requisition MRP schedule Hand-written requisition Review by materials planner Review by buyer Buyer changes Requisition entry Revised requisition Computer Purchase Order and acknowledgment form CAPM_2002 Purchase order copies

新采购管理实务 e-Procurement 電子化採購 電子RFA表格 線上目錄 上公司內部採購網站 Online catalog Electronic RFA Form Log-in Intranet Internal

新采购管理实务 e-Procurement 電子化採購 電子RFA表格 線上目錄 上公司內部採購網站 Online catalog Electronic RFA Form Log-in Intranet Internal Procurement Website User ID: XXXXX Password: XXXXX 線上核准 Online Approval 電子資金轉移帳戶 Electronic Funds Transfer (EFT) account 線上核准 Goods delivered 合約供應商 Contracted supplier • Check budget • Aggregate other PO electronically populated similar requisitions 線上核准 PO CAPM_2002 查核預算 相關請購加總

新采购管理实务 e-Procurement 採購 100%自動化 Approved Supplier Lists Auto. Release Procurement Workflow Approved Standard POs

新采购管理实务 e-Procurement 採購 100%自動化 Approved Supplier Lists Auto. Release Procurement Workflow Approved Standard POs EDI / Fax Supplier Schedules Web MRP/DRP Generated Requirements ASN Approval Workflow Receive Create Requisitions Non. Production Requests Pay on Receipt Payment Search Catalog Suppliers (Local or TPN Register) AP Content Loads/Updates CAPM_2002

新采购管理实务 Employing Electronic Commerce to Maximize Benefits: Phases of Electronic Commerce Value New Distribution

新采购管理实务 Employing Electronic Commerce to Maximize Benefits: Phases of Electronic Commerce Value New Distribution Channel, Product or Service Or Service Business Model Change Operational Efficiency u Value of EC Paper Replacement u u Number of Trading Partners Number of Transactions Reduction of Paper Overhead u Reduction of Inventory Reduction of Manufacturing and Delivery Cycle Time u Reduction of Labor u Lower Open A/R Days u Pipeline Velocity (Productivity) è u Value Engineering Analysis è u u Quality u Cash Flow u u è Extend Market Reach Extend Product or Market Service Offerings Reach Extend Create New Product or Information-Based Service Products Offerings Create New Information. Based Products Y L P M O IT EX C Accuracy 2 Years 5 Years

新采购管理实务 P R O C U R E M E N T 採購/供應管理應對之道 Paperless

新采购管理实务 P R O C U R E M E N T 採購/供應管理應對之道 Paperless thinking Reliable performance Open-minded Changing management Usefulness Response quickly e-Tool Money machine Endless resources Network building Threat avoidance CAPM_2002 e-世代的思維 追求有效成果 虛心、坦懷 「變」的管理 有效性的管理 快速反應能力 善用資訊科技 創造資源利潤 資源的無限化 建立網路人脈 排除生存風險

新采购管理实务 中央與地方分 模式 Decentralized Sourcing Centralized Sourcing Decentralized Fulfillment Centralized Fulfillment Decentralized Fulfillment

新采购管理实务 中央與地方分 模式 Decentralized Sourcing Centralized Sourcing Decentralized Fulfillment Centralized Fulfillment Decentralized Fulfillment

新采购管理实务 PRODUCT PORTFOLIO IMPACT ON FINANCIAL RESULTS High LEVERAGE PRODUCTS STRATEGIC PRODUCTS -Alternative sources

新采购管理实务 PRODUCT PORTFOLIO IMPACT ON FINANCIAL RESULTS High LEVERAGE PRODUCTS STRATEGIC PRODUCTS -Alternative sources of supply available -Substitution possible -Critical for product’s cost price -Dependence on supplier Competitive bidding Performance based partnership ROUTINE PRODUCTS Low BOTTLENECK PRODUCTS -Large product variety -High logistics complexity -Labor intensive -Monopolistic market -Large entry barriers Systems contracting+ e-Commerce solutions Secure supply + search For alternatives SUPPLY RISK High

新采购管理实务 SUPPLIER PORTFOLIO High SUPPLIER IMPACT ON FINANCIAL RESULTS LEVERAGE SUPPLIERS -Many competitors -Commodity

新采购管理实务 SUPPLIER PORTFOLIO High SUPPLIER IMPACT ON FINANCIAL RESULTS LEVERAGE SUPPLIERS -Many competitors -Commodity products -Market leaders -Specific know-how Buyer dominated segment Balance of power may differ among buyer-supplier ROUTINE SUPPLIERS Low STRATEGIC SUPPLIERS BOTTLENECK SUPPLIERS -Large supply -Many suppliers with dependent position -Technology leaders -Few, if any, alternative suppliers Reduce number of suppliers Supplier dominated segment SUPPLY RISK High

製造規劃與管制系統 新采购管理实务 Resource Planning Production Planning Rough-Cut Capacity Planning Master Production Scheduling Routing file

製造規劃與管制系統 新采购管理实务 Resource Planning Production Planning Rough-Cut Capacity Planning Master Production Scheduling Routing file Bills Of Material Detailed Capacity Planning Material Rqmts Planning Demand Management Inventory Status Timed-phased Rqmts Records Material and Capacity Plans Order Release Purchasing Shop-Floor Control Vendor Follow-Up Systems Source: ven Wheele 2000