BUSH OBAMA Warmup Out of all of the

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BUSH & OBAMA

BUSH & OBAMA

Warmup • Out of all of the presidents we have studied in the last

Warmup • Out of all of the presidents we have studied in the last year, which one is your favorite and why?

Agenda • Warmup • Bush & Obama PPT and Notes • “Inside Obama’s Presidency”

Agenda • Warmup • Bush & Obama PPT and Notes • “Inside Obama’s Presidency” video notes • Laptops

W. Bush: Pre-Presidency • Son of George H. W. Bush • Attended public schools,

W. Bush: Pre-Presidency • Son of George H. W. Bush • Attended public schools, prep schools, and boarding schools • He was the head cheerleader! • Attended Yale and Harvard • Also a cheerleader! • Joined the Texas Air National Guard • Bought a controlling interest in the Texas Rangers • Sold it and earned $15 million • Governor of Texas (1995 – 2000)

W. Bush: Election Controversy • Ran on the campaign he was a “compassionate conservative”

W. Bush: Election Controversy • Ran on the campaign he was a “compassionate conservative” • The 2000 election was one of the closest in history ◦ Gore won the popular vote, but electoral ◦ ◦ ◦ vote in Florida too close to call Machine recount of Florida votes took place Bush declared the winner by 537 votes Gore demanded hand recount Hand recounts began, but Bush sued to stop hand recounts Supreme Court ruled in Bush v. Gore that hand recounts were unconstitutional Bush won Florida’s electoral votes and became President

Background • Terrorism: the use of violence by nongovernmental groups against civilians to achieve

Background • Terrorism: the use of violence by nongovernmental groups against civilians to achieve a political goal • In 1988, Osama Bin Laden formed an organization called al-Qaeda, whose goal was the removal of western influence from Muslim society • Al-Qaeda conducted terrorist attacks on US targets • World Trade Center bombing in 1993 • American embassies in Kenya and Tanzania bombed in 1998 • USS Cole bombed in 2000 • September 11, 2001

War on Terror � Bush declared a “War on Terror” � Transportation Security Agency

War on Terror � Bush declared a “War on Terror” � Transportation Security Agency (TSA) created to prevent another terrorist hijacking/attack � Department of Homeland Security: cabinet level agency created to protect the US from all threats � The Patriot Act: expanded the government’s law enforcement and monitoring powers � Wars in Afghanistan (after al-Qaeda) and then Iraq (to search for Weapons of Mass Destruction) � Increase in US society of attacks on Muslims/Sikhs/people suspected of being from the Middle East � Detention and torture of suspected terrorists ◦ Suspects held in Guantanamo Bay ◦ Military tribunals now being held, but in secrecy

Key Events: No Child Left Behind • One of Bush’s early initiatives was to

Key Events: No Child Left Behind • One of Bush’s early initiatives was to try to close the “achievement gap” between children with different socioeconomic statuses • Targeted more federal funding to low-income schools • In 2002, Bush signed the No Child Left Behind Act • Students have performed better in math and science tests • The act focuses on “high-stakes testing”, which means students prove that they are learning through test results

Key Events: Hurricane Katrina • In 2005, Hurricane Katrina struck the north-central Gulf Coast

Key Events: Hurricane Katrina • In 2005, Hurricane Katrina struck the north-central Gulf Coast (Florida, Louisiana, Alabama, Mississippi, and parts of Texas) • Around 1, 800 people died • $108 billion in property damage • Bush’s administration was very slow to respond to the crisis • Bush tasked the Department of Homeland Security and the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) to manage the disaster, but they didn’t do much

Key Events: the Great Recession • The housing market collapsed and banks were holding

Key Events: the Great Recession • The housing market collapsed and banks were holding onto millions of worthless mortgages • Investment firms that held mortgage-backed securities (stocks backed up by mortgages) failed • Banks stopped lending money • Emergency Economic Stabilization Act = authorized the Secretary of the Treasury to spend $700 billion to prevent banks and large corporations from failing

Obama: Pre-Presidency • Barack Obama was born in Hawaii to a white mother and

Obama: Pre-Presidency • Barack Obama was born in Hawaii to a white mother and black Kenyan father • Went to Harvard to study law • Magna cum laude • Met Michelle while working for a Chicago law firm • Worked for Project Vote, a voter registration campaign to register African American voters in Chicago • Democratic Senator of Illinois (1997 – 2008)

Obama: Pre-Presidency (part 2) • After running against Hillary Clinton for the Democratic Primary,

Obama: Pre-Presidency (part 2) • After running against Hillary Clinton for the Democratic Primary, Hillary eventually backed out to support Obama • He selected Joe Biden as his VP • Ran against John Mc. Cain and Sarah Palin

Obama: Presidency • First African-American elected president • American Recovery and Reinvestment Act: $700

Obama: Presidency • First African-American elected president • American Recovery and Reinvestment Act: $700 billion to create new jobs, save existing jobs, and spur economic activity • Saved a lot of companies like GM • Affordable Care Act: expanded Medicaid and created an insurance marketplace to help give more Americans access to health insurance • Appointed Sonia Sotomayor to be the first Latina woman on the Supreme Court

Key Events: Osama bin Laden’s Death • In 2011, Osama bin Laden was killed

Key Events: Osama bin Laden’s Death • In 2011, Osama bin Laden was killed by Seal Team Six in his compound in Pakistan • Obama had rejected a plan to bomb the compound, and instead authorized a “surgical raid”

Key Events: LGBT Rights • President Obama repealed Bill Clinton’s policy of “Don’t Ask,

Key Events: LGBT Rights • President Obama repealed Bill Clinton’s policy of “Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell” • Allowed gays to serve in the military if no one knew they were gay • Signed the Matthew Shepard and James Byrd Jr. Hate Crimes Prevention Act • Expanded on the 1969 federal hate crime law to include attacks on people based on their sexual orientation, perceived gender, & gender identity • Obergefell v. Hodges = the Supreme Court ruled (2015) that gay marriage is a fundamental human right

Key Events: Gun Control • After the mass shooting at Sandy Hook Elementary School

Key Events: Gun Control • After the mass shooting at Sandy Hook Elementary School (2012), Obama announced a series of sweeping gun control proposals • Extensive background checks required • Limit ammunition sales • Ban armor-piercing bullets • Harsher penalties for weapons traffickers

Key Events: the Cuban Thaw • In 2013, Pope Francis advised Cuba and the

Key Events: the Cuban Thaw • In 2013, Pope Francis advised Cuba and the United States to exchange prisoners as a gesture of good will to each other • In 2014, Obama announced the negotiation of regaining relations with Cuba • In 2015, US formal diplomatic relations with Cuba resumed • Ended sixty years of détente! • Obama visited Cuba for a few days in 2016 • The first president to do so since Calvin Coolidge in 1928!