bus waveforms Transport and inertial delay Assignment statements

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 • bus • waveforms • Transport and inertial delay • Assignment statements •

• bus • waveforms • Transport and inertial delay • Assignment statements • more on Variables and signals • delta and simulation • How VHDL simulator works

This lecture is very important • This lecture is very important. • You can

This lecture is very important • This lecture is very important. • You can learn syntactical aspects from manual but here we discuss the principle of how the simulator works. • Therefore we will show many examples and will discuss some aspects several times from different points of view. • Please make sure that you really understand all concepts here.

Event Driven Simulation and the first encounter with delta

Event Driven Simulation and the first encounter with delta

Simulation Loop is based on executing signals from time queue

Simulation Loop is based on executing signals from time queue

Process Triggering

Process Triggering

Some Rules for Processes These rules have to be remembered. Our next slides will

Some Rules for Processes These rules have to be remembered. Our next slides will explain better why it is so…

An Infinite Loop Remember: processes repeat indefinitely with new data coming. But here is

An Infinite Loop Remember: processes repeat indefinitely with new data coming. But here is not new data

A Common Error of users • It is safe to add all input signals

A Common Error of users • It is safe to add all input signals from your circuit to the sensitivity list. You may only slow down the simulator.

Delta Time

Delta Time

Two-Dimensional Time

Two-Dimensional Time

A Delta-Time Infinite Loop • This is wrong way to make a clock.

A Delta-Time Infinite Loop • This is wrong way to make a clock.

Behavioral Modeling in VHDL • VHDL behavior – Sequential Statements – Concurrent Statements These

Behavioral Modeling in VHDL • VHDL behavior – Sequential Statements – Concurrent Statements These are two fundamental behaviors from which all simulation and synthesis models work

VHDL behavior models: concurrent sequential

VHDL behavior models: concurrent sequential

Sequential v. s. Concurrent Statements • VHDL is inherently a concurrent language – All

Sequential v. s. Concurrent Statements • VHDL is inherently a concurrent language – All VHDL processes execute concurrently – Concurrent signal assignment statements are actually one-line processes – Processes are re-executed if any signal in its sensitivity list is changed • VHDL statements execute sequentially within a process • Concurrent processes with sequential execution within a process offers maximum flexibility – Supports various levels of abstraction – Supports modeling of concurrent and sequential events as observed in real systems

VHDL behavior: Concurrent, sequential and processes

VHDL behavior: Concurrent, sequential and processes

Concurrent Statements

Concurrent Statements

Concurrent Statements • Basic granularity of concurrency is the process – Processes are executed

Concurrent Statements • Basic granularity of concurrency is the process – Processes are executed concurrently – Concurrent signal assignment statements are one-line processes • Mechanism for achieving concurrency : – Processes communicate with each other via signals – Signal assignments require delay before new value is assumed – Simulation time advances when all active processes complete – Effect is concurrent processing • i. e. order in which processes are actually executed by simulator does not affect behavior • Other than in last slide Concurrent VHDL statements include : – Block, process, assert, component instantiation

Processes

Processes

Behavioral sequential statements

Behavioral sequential statements

What specifically are the sequential statements?

What specifically are the sequential statements?

Initialization of processes

Initialization of processes

Execution of parallel processes • The processes here have no sensitivity list but have

Execution of parallel processes • The processes here have no sensitivity list but have wait statements

Model of Processes: waiting for events to occur

Model of Processes: waiting for events to occur

Signals and variables in Processes

Signals and variables in Processes

Communication Between Processes via Signals These are executed when first process allows

Communication Between Processes via Signals These are executed when first process allows

All these assignments executed in no time Many assignment Statements D 1 Many assignment

All these assignments executed in no time Many assignment Statements D 1 Many assignment statements Wait 10 n. S Diagrams like this are useful to visualize time in processes and how they interact Process FIRST Wait until D=‘ 1’ Process NEXT

Another example A <= 8 V=1 D 1 Wait until D=‘ 1’ Wait 10

Another example A <= 8 V=1 D 1 Wait until D=‘ 1’ Wait 10 n. S From next iteration of process NEXT D 0 From first iteration of process NEXT Wait 10 n. S V 0 Process FIRST 2 10 D=1 D=0 A=8 A=8 V=1 -> 0 V=1 0 Wait 2 n. S From next iteration of process NEXT Process NEXT

D=1 10 n. S V=0 10 n. S D=0 A=8, V=1 2 n. S

D=1 10 n. S V=0 10 n. S D=0 A=8, V=1 2 n. S

Signals Communicate in Between the Processes: signals propagate when processes are waiting Signals propagate

Signals Communicate in Between the Processes: signals propagate when processes are waiting Signals propagate within processes and between processes!

Signals Assigned After Processes Run: waiting processes can awake another processes

Signals Assigned After Processes Run: waiting processes can awake another processes

Example of role of WAIT in a process No delay of elements Assignment of

Example of role of WAIT in a process No delay of elements Assignment of value to signal C will be discussed in next slides Observe that there is no sensitivity list here. When A or B change, new value of variable TEMP is immediately calculated. It is used to calculate output signal C, not shown. This is just a trivial example. More will come.

Process with Signals

Process with Signals

Sensitivity List It is important to understand that change of c will not initiate

Sensitivity List It is important to understand that change of c will not initiate the process here!

Process with Sensitivity List We declare arbitrary delays You can use variables to simplify

Process with Sensitivity List We declare arbitrary delays You can use variables to simplify description or define exact timing

Compilation and Simulation of VHDL Code • Compiler (Analyzer) – checks the VHDL source

Compilation and Simulation of VHDL Code • Compiler (Analyzer) – checks the VHDL source code – does it conforms with VHDL syntax and semantic rules – are references to libraries correct • • Intermediate form used by a simulator or by a synthesizer Elaboration – create ports, allocate memory storage, create interconnections, . . . – establish mechanism for executing of VHDL processes compilation Internal data structures synthesis

VHDL Modeling Concepts • Semantics (meaning) of VHDL is heavily based on SIMULATION •

VHDL Modeling Concepts • Semantics (meaning) of VHDL is heavily based on SIMULATION • A design is described as a set of interconnected modules • A module could be another design (component) or could be described as a sequential program (process)

VHDL Program Structure: visualization of concurrency These modules are simulated concurrently through signals This

VHDL Program Structure: visualization of concurrency These modules are simulated concurrently through signals This means that they are all simulated in the same time before next delta comes

A general VHDL design with modules: another visualization of concurrency I 1 I 2

A general VHDL design with modules: another visualization of concurrency I 1 I 2 s 1 I 1 concurrent assignment component s 2 s 3 s 8 s 4 s 6 I 2 process 1 Entity … is … End entity; O 1 IO 1 s 5 process 2 s 7 O 1 architecture … of … is. . . begin … end; s 9 concurrent assignment IO 1 This diagram helps to visualize how process communication works - concurrency

VHDL Simulator stop start Init t = 0 more event get earliest event delta

VHDL Simulator stop start Init t = 0 more event get earliest event delta delay advance time update signals during process execution, new events may be added execute triggered processes This diagram helps to visualize how process communication works concurrency

Process Statements • FORMAT PROCESS_LABEL: process Flow of -- declarative part declares functions, procedures,

Process Statements • FORMAT PROCESS_LABEL: process Flow of -- declarative part declares functions, procedures, types, constants, variables, control etc begin -- Statement part sequential statement; wait statement; -- eg. Wait for 1 ms; or wait on ALARM_A; sequential statement; … wait statement; This diagram helps to end process; visualize how process communication works concurrency

Modeling Timing in VHDL • VHDL can be used to specify different aspects of

Modeling Timing in VHDL • VHDL can be used to specify different aspects of timing characteristics of hardware devices: – propagation delay of signals – operational time • Why we need timing? – The type “time” is a pre-defined physical type. – Mainly useful for modeling device timing characteristics – Can also be used to specify timing requirements, e. g. , setup and hold times of devices. – You can parameterize timing properties of an entity.

EXAMPLE: Process Declaration of Clock Generator Clock_gen: process (clk) is begin if clk =

EXAMPLE: Process Declaration of Clock Generator Clock_gen: process (clk) is begin if clk = ‘ 0’ then 2*T_pw clk <= ‘ 1’ after T_pw, ‘ 0’ after 2*T_pw; endif; T_pw end process clock_gen;

Waveform and Driver • Simulator uses drivers for signals • A driver of a

Waveform and Driver • Simulator uses drivers for signals • A driver of a signal contains a current value and a waveform representing projected future values. • Waveform elements are appended to a driver whenever a signal assignment is executed. How to describe a waveform? Use “after”

Using Nested IFs and ELSEIFs Simulator has also to understand semantics of statements like

Using Nested IFs and ELSEIFs Simulator has also to understand semantics of statements like IF Advise is to draw yourself flowchart like this to understand better

What Happens in Simulation? After examples discussed, we now understand better what are events

What Happens in Simulation? After examples discussed, we now understand better what are events and how they are scheduled. Details of implementation are not important at this time.

Timing Model in VHDL

Timing Model in VHDL

Timing Model in VHDL • VHDL uses a simulation cycle to model the stimulus

Timing Model in VHDL • VHDL uses a simulation cycle to model the stimulus and response nature of digital hardware Start Simulation Update Signals Delay We will introduce 3 models for delay Execute Processes End Simulation

Types of Delay in VHDL • All VHDL signal assignment statements prescribe an amount

Types of Delay in VHDL • All VHDL signal assignment statements prescribe an amount of time that must transpire before the signal assumes its new value • This prescribed delay can be in one of three forms: • • • Transport -- prescribes propagation delay only Inertial -- prescribes minimum input pulse width and propagation delay Delta -- the default if no delay time is explicitly specified Input delay Output

Concepts of Delays and Timing • The time dimension in the signal assignment refers

Concepts of Delays and Timing • The time dimension in the signal assignment refers to simulation time in a discrete event simulation • There is a simulation time clock • When a signal assignment is executed, the delay specified is added to current simulation time to determine when new value is applied to signal – Schedules a transaction for the signal at that time output input

More on inertial and transport models • Inertial delay – Model the time lag

More on inertial and transport models • Inertial delay – Model the time lag between stable inputs and valid output of a device – Representative of combinational logic elements – Pulses smaller than transmission delay are suppressed – Default model for VHDL descriptions • Transport delay – Model a pure delay mechanism – All pulses are transmitted – Used for transmission lines or elements with clock- cycle latency

Inertial versus transport delay How small should be the glitch to be distinguished by

Inertial versus transport delay How small should be the glitch to be distinguished by inertial and transport? We will answer in next slides Observe the spike is lost in A when we use AFTER Observe the spike is NOT lost in B when we use TRANSPORT

Transport Delay • Delay must be explicitly specified by user – Keyword “TRANSPORT” must

Transport Delay • Delay must be explicitly specified by user – Keyword “TRANSPORT” must be used Under this model, ALL input signal changes are reflected at the output • Signal will assume its new value after specified delay -- TRANSPORT must be specified Output <= TRANSPORT NOT Input AFTER 10 ns; Input Output Input As we see, spikes are not lost Output 0 35 5 10 15 20 25 30

Specifying Delays: Inertial Model • Inertial Delay Model – reflects physical inertia of physical

Specifying Delays: Inertial Model • Inertial Delay Model – reflects physical inertia of physical systems – glitches of very small duration not reflected in outputs • SIG_OUT <= not SIG_IN after 7 nsec --implicit • SIG_OUT <= inertial ( not SIG_IN after 7 nsec ) • Logic gates exhibit lowpass filtering 10 ns 3 ns SIG_IN 2 ns SIG_OUT 9 ns 19 ns

Inertial Delay • Provides for specification of input pulse width, i. e. ‘inertia’ of

Inertial Delay • Provides for specification of input pulse width, i. e. ‘inertia’ of output, and propagation delay : target <= [REJECT time_expression] INERTIAL waveform; • Inertial delay is default and REJECT is optional : Output <= NOT Input AFTER 10 ns; -- Propagation delay and minimum pulse width are 10 ns Input Here reject is not used Input Output Here we do not write INERTIAL because it is a default. Signal shorter than 10 ns is avoided 0 35 5 10 15 20 25 30

Inertial Delay with REJECT • Note that REJECT feature is new to VHDL 1076

Inertial Delay with REJECT • Note that REJECT feature is new to VHDL 1076 -1993 • Example of gate with ‘inertia’ smaller than propagation delay – e. g. Inverter with propagation delay of 10 ns which Output <= REJECT 5 ns INERTIAL NOT Input AFTER 10 ns; suppresses pulses shorter than 5 ns Example of gate with ‘inertia’ smaller than propagation delay e. g. Inverter with propagation delay of 10 ns which suppresses pulses shorter than 5 ns Input Output 0 35 5 10 15 20 25 30 Because here we clearly specify REJECT 5 ns, only signals 5 ns or shorter are rejected and 7 ns is not rejected

A problem with inertial delay Output has propag ation delay of 4 ns buffer

A problem with inertial delay Output has propag ation delay of 4 ns buffer

How the simulator works. Delta

How the simulator works. Delta

Delta Delay • Delta Delay is the default signal assignment propagation delay in case

Delta Delay • Delta Delay is the default signal assignment propagation delay in case that no delay is explicitly prescribed – VHDL signals assignment cannot take place immediately – Delta is an infinitesimal VHDL time unit so that all signal assignments can result in signals assuming their values at some future time – E. g. Output <= NOT Input; -- Output assumes new value in one delta cycle • Delta delay supports a model of concurrent VHDL process execution – Order in which processes are executed by simulator does not affect simulation output

Delta Delay An Example without Delta Delay • What is the behavior of C?

Delta Delay An Example without Delta Delay • What is the behavior of C? A IN: 1>0 C B 1 NAND gate evaluated first: IN: 1 ->0 A: 0 ->1 B: 1 ->0 C: 0 ->0 We do not like such idea of simulator AND gate evaluated first: IN: 1 ->0 A: 0 ->1 C: 0 ->1 Glitch generated B: 1 ->0 C: 1 ->0

Delta Delay An Example with Delta Delay • What is the behavior of C?

Delta Delay An Example with Delta Delay • What is the behavior of C? A IN: 1 ->0 C B 1 Using delta delay scheduling Time 0 ns Delta 1 2 3 1 ns 4 Event IN: 1 ->0 eval INVERTER A: 0 ->1 eval NAND, AND B: 1 ->0 C: 0 ->1 eval AND C: 1 ->0 Gates that are successors of gate that changed signal value are evaluated

As we see in this example the result of simulation depends on order of

As we see in this example the result of simulation depends on order of evaluating gates. This is bad. Clock changes from 0 to 1 Time modellingdelta delay. 1. What is wrong with old simulators? With this order of evaluation a glitch in signal D is created which means clocking One more clock is generated - this is bad. As we see, timing behavior simulated depends on the gate evaluation order AND first evaluation NAND first evaluation This is good again

This is levelized evaluation from inputs to outputs Time modelling - delta delay. Delta

This is levelized evaluation from inputs to outputs Time modelling - delta delay. Delta delay of VHDL solves the problem. • Many delta units of time passed but only one unit of time reported to the user Delta is as close to zero as we want delta

Delta Delay: instability time • If no delay time is specified, a delta delay

Delta Delay: instability time • If no delay time is specified, a delta delay is assumed for any signal assignment. • Delta delay represents an infinitesimal delay, less than any measurable time (i. e. , femtoseconds), but still larger than zero. • An example These are moments of time This example shows use of delta to simulate latch. Here delay is declared using after 5 ns Black are instability times

Signals vs Variables: signal used for Out_1 • A key difference between variables and

Signals vs Variables: signal used for Out_1 • A key difference between variables and signals is the assignment delay ARCHITECTURE sig_ex OF test IS SIGNAL a, b, c, out_1, out_2 : BIT; BEGIN PROCESS (a, b, c, out_1) BEGIN a out_1 <= a NAND b; out_2 <= out_1 XOR c; b END PROCESS; END sig_ex; c Time a b c out_1 out_2 0 1 1+d 1+2 d 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 Symbol d represents delta signal Out_1 Out_2 time a b c out_1 out_2 0 1 1+d 1+2 d

Signals vs Variables (Cont. ): Variable used for out_3 ARCHITECTURE var_ex OF test IS

Signals vs Variables (Cont. ): Variable used for out_3 ARCHITECTURE var_ex OF test IS SIGNAL a, b, c, out_4 : BIT; BEGIN PROCESS (a, b, c) VARIABLE out_3 : BIT; BEGIN out_3 : = a NAND b; out_4 <= out_3 XOR c; END PROCESS; END var_ex; Time a b c out_3 out_4 0 1 1+d 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 variable a b Out_3 Out_4 c Out_3 is a variable so the change is immediate as shown by red arrow This example has no any other meaning, it just has to explain the timing of variables and signals in a simulator a b c out_3 a, b, c, out_4 are signals but out_3 is a variable out_4 0 1 1+d

Delta Delay and the simulator in more detail • If no future time is

Delta Delay and the simulator in more detail • If no future time is specified, VHDL automatically assumes a small time delay. – This delay is the delta delay – The smallest unit of time i. e. 0 fs. • Delta causes changes to occur only in the future • Delta is consistent with the definition of signals. • Mechanism – Assignment schedules a transaction – The transaction is applied after the process suspends. – Process does not see the effect until it resumes next time.

How it works? • Recollect simulator kernel. • Two phases : – Signal update

How it works? • Recollect simulator kernel. • Two phases : – Signal update phase – Process execution phase. • Signal update phase updates the values of the signals at the current simulation time. • This may trigger events. • Process execution phase responds to the events and they execute.

Why Delta Delay? • Assignments are done in the process execution phase. Eg. X

Why Delta Delay? • Assignments are done in the process execution phase. Eg. X <= 10; • Transaction is not applied immediately. • It can be done only in the signal update phase. • When all processes are suspended, simulation time is updated. • Only now is the transaction applied.

Simulation Cycle Revisited Sequential vs Concurrent Statements • VHDL is inherently a concurrent language

Simulation Cycle Revisited Sequential vs Concurrent Statements • VHDL is inherently a concurrent language – All VHDL processes execute concurrently – Concurrent signal assignment statements are actually one-line processes • VHDL statements execute sequentially within a process • Concurrent processes with sequential execution within a process offers maximum flexibility – Supports various levels of abstraction – Supports modeling of concurrent and sequential events as observed in real systems

This example will illustrate simulating a 4 -bit Adder

This example will illustrate simulating a 4 -bit Adder

Here is the structural description of 4 -bit Adder

Here is the structural description of 4 -bit Adder

4 -bit Adder – Simulation and analysis of deltas

4 -bit Adder – Simulation and analysis of deltas

Next example will show Modeling Flip-Flops Using VHDL Processes General form of process •

Next example will show Modeling Flip-Flops Using VHDL Processes General form of process • Whenever one of the signals in the sensitivity list changes, the sequential statements are executed in sequence one time

JK Flip-Flop Model Animation and details in next slide

JK Flip-Flop Model Animation and details in next slide

Notes to the JK Flip-Flop Model

Notes to the JK Flip-Flop Model

Another simulation example to Recall on Delta Delay • Default signal assignment propagation delay

Another simulation example to Recall on Delta Delay • Default signal assignment propagation delay if no delay is explicitly prescribed – VHDL signal assignments do not take place immediately – Delta is an infinitesimal VHDL time unit so that all signal assignments can result in signals assuming their values at a future time – E. g. Output <= NOT Input; -- Output assumes new value in one delta cycle • Supports a model of concurrent VHDL process execution – Order in which processes are executed by simulator does not affect simulation output

Simulation Example illustrating delta Queue for A Queue for B

Simulation Example illustrating delta Queue for A Queue for B

Illustration of force and timing diagram in Simulation of the VHDL Model Simulation command

Illustration of force and timing diagram in Simulation of the VHDL Model Simulation command file: Force clk Force X Waveforms: All forced signals here

Structural Model of State Machine Package bit_pack is a part of library BITLIB –

Structural Model of State Machine Package bit_pack is a part of library BITLIB – includes gates, flip-flops, counters

Simulation of the Structural Model Simulation command file: Waveforms:

Simulation of the Structural Model Simulation command file: Waveforms:

One More Simulation Example: gate timing Continued

One More Simulation Example: gate timing Continued

VHDL simulation of gates with delays From force

VHDL simulation of gates with delays From force

The same circuit but another description for simulation Now simulator reacts to changes of

The same circuit but another description for simulation Now simulator reacts to changes of si signals • Order does not matter because we are in architecture and we are executing concurrent statements and not inside a process!

Now we see internal delays

Now we see internal delays

Third description of this example Change of si creates no event for this process

Third description of this example Change of si creates no event for this process

Differences between CSA and Process Change of out 1, out 2 repeats simulation Change

Differences between CSA and Process Change of out 1, out 2 repeats simulation Change of out 1, out 2 does not repeat simulation

X is signal Signals and Variables X is variable so changes immediately and next

X is signal Signals and Variables X is variable so changes immediately and next equation takes new value and not old value as in the code from the left

Variables • Can be altered using variable assignment statements • Updating takes place immediately

Variables • Can be altered using variable assignment statements • Updating takes place immediately • Can be declared only within Processes and Functions • Variables Inside Processes • Variables inside processes are static • Assigned value is stored till next call. • Variables inside functions and procedures are not static

Signals • Represent data values on physical lines in circuits. • Models the response

Signals • Represent data values on physical lines in circuits. • Models the response in actual circuits accurately – Does not change values immediately. • Assignment does not affect the value immediately. – Always occurs sometime in the future – can be at the same simulation time though. • Future time at which signal is affected can be explicitly stated. Waveform can also be specified.

 • Variable assignment statement • Signal assignment • wait

• Variable assignment statement • Signal assignment • wait

Sequential Statements • Variable assignment statement • Signal assignment • If statement • Case

Sequential Statements • Variable assignment statement • Signal assignment • If statement • Case statement • Loop statement • Next statement • Exit statement • Null statement • Procedure call statement • Return statement • Assertion statement

Variable assignment statement Variable_assignment_statement : : = target: =expression; architecture RTL of VASSIGN is

Variable assignment statement Variable_assignment_statement : : = target: =expression; architecture RTL of VASSIGN is signal A, B, J : bit_vector(1 downto 0); signal E, F, G : bit; begin p 0 : process (A, B, E, F, G, J) variable C, D, H, Y : bit_vector(1 downto 0); variable W, Q : bit_vector(3 downto 0); variable Z : bit_vector(0 to 7); variable X : bit; variable DATA : bit_vector(31 downto 0); begin . . . end process end RTL; We declare various types of variables inside the process

Variable assignment statement • • • signal A, B, J : bit_vector(1 downto 0);

Variable assignment statement • • • signal A, B, J : bit_vector(1 downto 0); signal E, F, G : bit; p 0 : process (A, B, E, F, G, J) -- A, B, J, D, H : bit_vector -- E, F, G : bit begin Variable assigned to a signal C : = "01"; X : = E nand F; The same signal concatenation Y : = H or J; G (a bit) goes to Z(0 to 3) : = C & D; two bits Z(4 to 7) : = (not A) & (A nor B); D : = ('1', '0'); W : = (2 downto 1 => G, 3 => '1', others => '0'); DATA : = (others => '0'); end process; Here we assignals to variables Make note of mapping notation. . Bit G assigned to two bits.

Formal Syntax of a signal assignment statement VHDL syntax description in metalanguage Signal_assignment_statement :

Formal Syntax of a signal assignment statement VHDL syntax description in metalanguage Signal_assignment_statement : : = target<=[transport]waveform_element{, waveform_element}; waveform_element: : = value_expression[after time_expression]|null[after time_expression]

WAIT STATEMENT AND TIMING Perhaps the most difficult to understand statement of VHDL. If

WAIT STATEMENT AND TIMING Perhaps the most difficult to understand statement of VHDL. If you do not understand it , you will have troubles to interpret timing results from simulation and you will be not able to do good behavioral descriptions

WAIT statement Three types of WAIT Common student mistake, may be because of syntax

WAIT statement Three types of WAIT Common student mistake, may be because of syntax mistake

Example of WAIT statement

Example of WAIT statement

The wait statement

The wait statement

Equivalent Processes

Equivalent Processes

“Wait Until” and “Wait for”

“Wait Until” and “Wait for”

Signal Declarations • Signals must not be declared inside a process or subprogram. •

Signal Declarations • Signals must not be declared inside a process or subprogram. • Ports must always be signals. • Models sub-system communication correctly.

Example: Variables vs signals • Signal X is changing outside the process, not shown

Example: Variables vs signals • Signal X is changing outside the process, not shown how.

Wait Statements • . . . an alternative to a sensitivity list – Note:

Wait Statements • . . . an alternative to a sensitivity list – Note: a process cannot have both wait statement(s) and a sensitivity list • Generic form of a process with wait statement(s) process begin sequential-statements wait statement sequential-statements wait-statement. . . end process; How wait statements work? • Execute seq. statement until a wait statement is encountered. • Wait until the specified condition is satisfied. • Then execute the next set of sequential statements until the next wait statement is encountered. • . . . • When the end of the process is reached start over again at the beginning.

Forms of Wait Statements wait on sensitivity-list; wait for time-expression; wait until boolean-expression; •

Forms of Wait Statements wait on sensitivity-list; wait for time-expression; wait until boolean-expression; • Wait on – until one of the signals in the sensitivity list changes • Wait for – waits until the time specified by the time expression has elapsed – What is this: wait for 0 ns; • Wait until – the Boolean expression is evaluated whenever one of the signals in the expression changes, and the process continues execution when the expression evaluates to TRUE

p 0 : process (A, B) begin Y <= A nand B after 10

p 0 : process (A, B) begin Y <= A nand B after 10 ns; X <= transport A nand B after 10 ns; end process; p 1 : process begin A <= '0', '1' after 20 ns, '0' after 40 ns, '1' after 60 ns; B <= '0', '1' after 30 ns, '0' after 35 ns, '1' after 50 ns; wait for 80 ns; end process; Signal assignment statements and wait for Switching time of circuit p 0 80 n. S A B X Y A pulse with a duration shorter than the switching time of the circuit (10 n. S) will be transmitted in transport. Recall waveforms , transport and inertial delay. Recall that default is intertial, as shown for signal X

Signal assignment statement A pulse (5 n. S) with a duration shorter than the

Signal assignment statement A pulse (5 n. S) with a duration shorter than the switching time of the circuit (10 n. S) will be transmitted in transport. Inertial and Transport Delays

entity DELAY is end DELAY; architecture RTL of DELAY is signal A, B, X,

entity DELAY is end DELAY; architecture RTL of DELAY is signal A, B, X, Y : bit; begin p 0 : process (A, B) begin Y <= A nand B after 10 ns; X <= transport A nand B after 10 ns; end process; X Y p 1 : process begin A <= '0', '1' after 20 ns, '0' after 40 ns, '1' after 60 ns; B <= '0', '1' after 30 ns, '0' after 35 ns, '1' after 50 ns; wait for 80 ns; end process; end RTL;

Role of wait for in discarding signals Waiting 30 ns to start next assignment

Role of wait for in discarding signals Waiting 30 ns to start next assignment 30 ns entity DRIVER is end DRIVER; architecture RTL of DRIVER is signal A : integer; begin pa : process begin Waiting 50 ns to start next assignment. 30 + 50 = 80 20 ns A <= 3, 5 after 20 ns, 7 after 40 ns, 9 after 60 ns; Discarded by the end of first assignment to A wait for 30 ns; A <= 2, 4 after 20 ns, 6 after 40 ns, 8 after 60 ns; wait for 50 ns; end process; Discarded by the end of end RTL; the second assignment to This slide explains the role of wait for to discard part of assignment statement A. Time 30+50=80 has passed

Differences between variables and signals There are differences where declared and when updated 1.

Differences between variables and signals There are differences where declared and when updated 1. Where declared – Local variables are declared and only visible inside a process or a subprogram. – Signals cannot be declared inside a process or a subprogram. 2. When updated • A local variable is immediately updated when the variable assignment statement is executed. • A signal assignment statement updates the signal driver. • The new value of the signal is updated when the process is suspended, as shown in last slide.

Differences between variables and Signal assignment statement signals 3. Variables are cheaper to implement

Differences between variables and Signal assignment statement signals 3. Variables are cheaper to implement in VHDL simulation since the evaluation of drivers is not needed. – Variables require less memory. 4. Signals communicate among concurrent statements. – Ports declared in the entity are signals. – Subprogram arguments can be signals or variables. 5. A signal is used to indicate an interconnect (net in a schematic). – A local variable is used as a temporary value in a function description.

Signals versus variables 6. A local variable is very useful to factor out common

Signals versus variables 6. A local variable is very useful to factor out common parts of complex equations to reduce the mathematical calculation. 7. Right-hand sides: – The right-hand side of a variable assignment statement is an expression. – There is no associated time expression. – The right-hand side of a signal assignment statement is a sequence of waveform elements with associated time expressions.

Signals and variables in timing diagrams entity SIGVAL is port ( CLK, D :

Signals and variables in timing diagrams entity SIGVAL is port ( CLK, D : in bit; FF 2, FF 3 : out bit; Y : out bit_vector(7 downto 0)); end SIGVAL; architecture RTL of SIGVAL is signal FF 1, SIG 0, SIG 1 : bit; begin p 0 : process (D, SIG 1, SIG 0) variable VAR 0, VAR 1 : bit; Variables and signals on left begin VAR 0 : = D; Variables and signals on VAR 1 : = D; right SIG 0 <= VAR 0; SIG 1 <= VAR 1; Y(1 downto 0) <= VAR 1 & VAR 0; Y(3 downto 2) <= SIG 1 & SIG 0; VAR 0 : = not VAR 0; VAR 1 : = not VAR 1; SIG 0 <= not VAR 0; SIG 1 <= not D; Y(5 downto 4) <= VAR 1 & VAR 0; Y(7 downto 6) <= SIG 1 & SIG 0; end process;

Timing of variables versus timing of signals FF 2 is old value of FF

Timing of variables versus timing of signals FF 2 is old value of FF 1 according to signal semantics p 1 : process begin wait until CLK'event and CLK = '1'; FF 1 <= D; FF 2 <= FF 1; end process; p 2 : process variable V 3 : bit; bit begin wait until CLK'event and CLK = until '1'; V 3 : = D; FF 3 <= V 3; end process; • Variable V 3 changes at the same time as FF 1, and so FF 3 end RTL; • FF 3 unlike FF 2 CLK D VAR 0 VAR 1 SIG 0 SIG 1 Y FF 1 FF 2 V 3 FF 3 MORAL: Signals are scheduled, variables change immediately

p 0 : process (D, SIG 1, SIG 0 WAIT D variable VAR 0,

p 0 : process (D, SIG 1, SIG 0 WAIT D variable VAR 0, VAR 1 : bit; D Q FF 2 FF 1 c c Process 1 clk var 0 D clk V 3 D Q FF 3 c Process 2 Process Po begin VAR 0 : = D; VAR 1 : = D; SIG 0 <= VAR 0; SIG 1 <= VAR 1; Y(1 downto 0) <= VAR 1 & VAR 0; Y(3 downto 2) <= SIG 1 & SIG 0; VAR 0 : = not VAR 0; VAR 1 : = not VAR 1; SIG 0 <= not VAR 0; SIG 1 <= not D; Y(5 downto 4) <= VAR 1 & VAR 0; Y(7 downto 6) <= SIG 1 & SIG 0; end process; p 1 : process begin wait until CLK'event and CLK = '1'; FF 1 <= D; FF 2 <= FF 1; end process; p 2 : process variable V 3 : bit; begin wait until CLK'event and CLK = '1'; V 3 : = D; FF 3 <= V 3; end process; end RTL;

Using FF 1, a signal, the old value is substituted Using V 3, a

Using FF 1, a signal, the old value is substituted Using V 3, a variable, the new value is substituted p 1 : process begin wait until CLK'event and CLK = '1'; FF 1 <= D; FF 2 <= FF 1; end process; p 2 : process variable V 3 : bit; begin wait until CLK'event and CLK = '1'; V 3 : = D; FF 3 <= V 3; end process; end RTL; Compare FF 2 (from signal change) and FF 3 (from variable change) CLK D VAR 0 VAR 1 SIG 0 SIG 1 Y FF 1 FF 2 V 3 FF 3

p 0 : process (D, SIG 1, SIG 0) variable VAR 0, VAR 1

p 0 : process (D, SIG 1, SIG 0) variable VAR 0, VAR 1 : bit; begin VAR 0 : = D; VAR 1 : = D; SIG 0 <= VAR 0; SIG 1 <= VAR 1; Y(1 downto 0) <= VAR 1 & VAR 0; Y(3 downto 2) <= SIG 1 & SIG 0; VAR 0 : = not VAR 0; VAR 1 : = not VAR 1; SIG 0 <= not VAR 0; SIG 1 <= not D; Y(5 downto 4) <= VAR 1 & VAR 0; Y(7 downto 6) <= SIG 1 & SIG 0; end process; Input signals • • • p 1 : process begin wait until CLK'event and CLK = '1'; FF 1 <= D; FF 2 <= FF 1; end process; SIG 0 changes with D, no delay, in process 1 D, SIG 0 and SIG 1 are in sensitivity list p 2 : process variable V 3 : bit; begin wait until CLK'event and CLK = '1'; V 3 : = D; FF 3 <= V 3; end process; end RTL; FF 1 takes old D V 3 takes new D

Three architectures entity TEMP is end TEMP; architecture RTL of TEMP is signal A,

Three architectures entity TEMP is end TEMP; architecture RTL of TEMP is signal A, B, C, D, E, F, G, Y, Z : integer; begin p 0 : process (A, B, C, D, E, F, G) begin Y <= A + (B*C + D*E*F + G); Z <= A - (B*C + D*E*F + G); end process; end RTL; architecture RTL 1 of TEMP is signal A, B, C, D, E, F, G, Y, Z : integer; begin p 0 : process (A, B, C, D, E, F, G) v calculated variable V : integer; immediately begin V : = (B*C + D*E*F + G); Y <= A + V; Z <= A - V; The same end process; statements end RTL 1; architecture RTL 2 of TEMP is signal A, B, C, D, E, F, G, Y, Z : integer; signal V : integer; begin p 0 : process (A, B, C, D, E, F, G) begin V <= (B*C + D*E*F + G); Uses old value Y <= A + V; Z <= A - V; of v, because it end process; is a signal end RTL 2; First architecture has no variables Second architecture uses variable V Third architecture uses additional signal V Their operation is different because signal V is scheduled and variable immediately assigned

Signal Declarations • Signals must not be declared inside a process or subprogram. •

Signal Declarations • Signals must not be declared inside a process or subprogram. • Ports must always be signals. • Models sub-system communication correctly.

Signals - Drivers • Value holder for a signal. • Created when signal assignments

Signals - Drivers • Value holder for a signal. • Created when signal assignments schedule some value at some future time. • Every signal has a separate driver. – Can be thought of as a source for a signal. • Driver maintains an ordered list of transactions. – Recollect transaction is assignment made to a signal. • Simulator uses the value of the signal stored in the driver.

Multiple Drivers • Signals may be updated in more than 1 process at the

Multiple Drivers • Signals may be updated in more than 1 process at the same time. • There may be more than 1 driver for the same signal, one for each process. • The values assigned may be same or different. • What to do if the values are different?

Multiple Drivers - Resolution • �� Resolution function is the solution. • �� This

Multiple Drivers - Resolution • �� Resolution function is the solution. • �� This function resolves the value of the signal. • �� This function must resolve all possible pairs of values that two drivers may assign. • �� The signal being resolved is called the resolved signal. • �� The resolution function can be attached to – �� A signal directly or – �� A data-type itself.

Homework Problem #1 • Using the labels, list the order in which the following

Homework Problem #1 • Using the labels, list the order in which the following signal assignments are evaluated if in 2 changes from a '0' to a '1'. Assume in 1 has been a '1' and in 2 has been a '0' for a long time, and then at time t in 2 changes from a '0' to a '1'. entity not_another_prob is port (in 1, in 2: in bit; a: out bit); end not_another_prob; architecture oh_behave of not_another_prob is signal b, c, d, e, f: bit; begin L 1: d <= not(in 1); L 2: c<= not(in 2); L 3: f <= (d and in 2) ; L 4: e <= (c and in 1) ; L 5: a <= not b; L 6: b <= e or f; end oh_behave;

Homework Problem #2 • Under what conditions do the two assignments below result in

Homework Problem #2 • Under what conditions do the two assignments below result in the same behavior? Different behavior? Draw waveforms to support your answers. out <= reject 5 ns inertial (not a) after 20 ns; out <= transport (not a) after 20 ns;

Some slides from X. Sharon Hu Bob Reese Shankar Balachandran

Some slides from X. Sharon Hu Bob Reese Shankar Balachandran