- Slides: 22
Bronze Age Empires
Shang: 1523 -1028 BC
Oracle Bones Calendar Evidence from the Shang oracle bone inscriptions shows that at least by the 14 th century BC the Shang had established the solar year at 365 1/4 days
The Evolution of Chinese Writing during the Shang Pictographs Semantic-Phonetics
Jade Axe Scepter – 1100 BC Ceremonial Dagger – 1028 BC
Duke of Zhou Overthrew the Shang Dynasty
The Mandate of Heaven 1. The leader, whose royal authority comes from heaven must lead by ability and virtue (morally good) 2. The dynasty's leadership must be justified by succeeding generations. 3. The mandate could be revoked by negligence and abuse; the will of the people was important.
Mandate of Heaven Floods, riots and other disasters were viewed as divine signs that the spirits were displeased with ruler This belief was used to explain rebellion, civil war and the rise of new dynasties
Start here Emperor is defeated !! A new Dynasty emerges Rebel bands find strong leader who unites them. Attack the emperor. Poor loose respect for govt. They join rebels & attack landlords. A new dynasty comes to power The emperor reforms the govt. , peace & order The Dynastic Cycle Droughts, floods, famines occur. Lives of common people improved; taxes reduced; farming encouraged. Problems begin (extensive wars, invasions, etc. ) Taxes increase; men forced to work for army. Farming neglected. Govt. increases spending; corruption.
The Zhou Dynasty
Feudalism • Zhou kings spread their rule over China through a system called feudalism • Nobles own the farmland, that is worked by peasants, or serfs • In feudal China, the Zhou put their relatives and other trusted nobles in charge of the land
Feudalism The serfs paid the nobles for the use of the land In turn, the nobles paid the king a portion of what the peasants produced & also promised to send the king soldiers in time of war The king granted each noble complete control of his own land-consisted of a walled town and the farms around it.
Ritual Food Vessel, bronze (Western Zhou) 11 th century BC
Zhou Coins - bronze
Period of Warring States • 771 B. C. Nomads invaded the Zhou capital and murdered the king • Royal family escaped and set up new capital at • Louyang
Period of Warring States Nobles fought to gain power as ruling family declined Traditional values collapsed as love, order and harmony is replaced with chaos and defiance