British Colonization Early European exploration and colonization resulted

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British Colonization Early European exploration and colonization resulted in the re-distribution of the world's

British Colonization Early European exploration and colonization resulted in the re-distribution of the world's population as millions of people from Europe and Africa voluntarily and involuntarily moved to the New World. Exploration and colonization initiated worldwide commercial expansion as agricultural products were exchanged between the Americas and Europe. In time, colonization led to ideas of representative government and religious toleration that over several centuries would inspire similar transformations in other parts of the world.

Jamestown, established in 1607 by the Virginia Company of London as a business venture,

Jamestown, established in 1607 by the Virginia Company of London as a business venture, was the first permanent English settlement in North America. • It was a joint stock company: the pre-cursor of a modern corporation– a group of investors combine their money to finance a risky business to decrease the risk, and share the wealth. Jamestown Politics

 • Virginia and the other Southern colonies were settled by people seeking economic

• Virginia and the other Southern colonies were settled by people seeking economic opportunities. • Poor English immigrants also came seeking better lives as small farmers or artisans and settled in the Shenandoah Valley or western Virginia, or as indentured servants who agreed to work on tobacco plantations for a period of time to pay for passage to the New World. • The first Africans were brought against their will to Jamestown in 1619 to work on tobacco plantations. Headright System: rich people got 50 acres of land from the government for each indentured servant they brought over to work, Servants also got 50 acres of land once they completed their indenture. Southern Workers

The growth of an agricultural economy based on large land-holdings in the Southern colonies

The growth of an agricultural economy based on large land-holdings in the Southern colonies and in the Caribbean led to the introduction of slavery in the New World. • Virginia and the other Southern colonies developed economies in the eastern coastal lowlands based on large plantations that grew “cash crops” such as tobacco, rice, and indigo for export to Europe. • The Southern Colonial economy was a good example of Mercantilism: the English economic system that said colonies exist to make their mother country rich. Colonies provided England with raw materials and bought their manufactured goods. • Farther inland, however, in the mountains and valleys of the Appalachian foothills, the economy was based on small-scale subsistence farming, hunting, and trading. • In the mountains and valleys further inland, however, society was characterized by small subsistence farmers, hunters and traders of Scots-Irish and English descent. Southern Economy

Chesapeake Settlement

Chesapeake Settlement

 • The Virginia House of Burgesses, established by the 1640 s, was the

• The Virginia House of Burgesses, established by the 1640 s, was the first elected assembly in the New World. It has operated continuously and is today known as the General Assembly of Virginia. • Large landowners in the eastern lowlands dominated colonial government and society and maintained an allegiance to the Church of England closer social ties to England than in the other colonies. • Southern Colonies maintained stronger ties with Britain, with planters playing leading roles in representative colonial legislatures. Southern Government

The first Africans were brought against their will to Jamestown in 1619 to work

The first Africans were brought against their will to Jamestown in 1619 to work on tobacco plantations. • Some of the early Virginia settlers were “cavaliers”, English nobility who received large land grants (plantations) in eastern Virginia from the King of England. • A strong belief in private ownership of property and free enterprise characterized colonial life. • Virginia and the Southern colonies had a social structure based on family status and the ownership of land. Southern Society

The movement (trade) of biological stuff from the Old World (Europe & Africa) to

The movement (trade) of biological stuff from the Old World (Europe & Africa) to the New World (American colonies)

 • New England was settled by Puritans seeking freedom from religious persecution in

• New England was settled by Puritans seeking freedom from religious persecution in Europe. • New England’s colonial society was based on religious standing. New England Settlement

 • They formed a “covenant community” based on the principles of the Mayflower

• They formed a “covenant community” based on the principles of the Mayflower Compact and Puritan religious beliefs and were often intolerant of those not sharing their religion. • They also sought economic opportunity and practiced a form of direct democracy through town meetings. • New England Colonies - the use of town meetings (an “Athenian” direct democracy model) in the operation of government. New England Politics

 • The New England colonies developed an economy based on shipbuilding, fishing, lumbering,

• The New England colonies developed an economy based on shipbuilding, fishing, lumbering, smallscale subsistence farming, and eventually, manufacturing. • The colonies prospered, reflecting the Puritans’ strong belief in the values of hard work and thrift. New England Economy

 • New England’s colonial society was based on religious standing. • The Puritans

• New England’s colonial society was based on religious standing. • The Puritans grew increasingly intolerant of dissenters who challenged the Puritans’ belief in the connection be-tween religion and government. • Rhode Island was founded by dissenters fleeing persecution by Puritans in Massachusetts. (Roger Williams) New England Society

 • King Philip’s War Conflict with Indians

• King Philip’s War Conflict with Indians

 • The Middle Atlantic region was settled chiefly by English, Dutch, and Germanspeaking

• The Middle Atlantic region was settled chiefly by English, Dutch, and Germanspeaking immigrants seeking religious freedom and economic opportunity • Middle Colonies - incorporated a number of democratic principles that reflected the basic rights of Englishmen. • They are Proprietary Colonies: colonies given as gifts to friends of the King & owned by that person. EX: New York, Pennsylvania & Maryland. Settlement of the Middle Colonies

 • The middle colonies of New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Delaware developed

• The middle colonies of New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Delaware developed economies based on shipbuilding, small-scale farming, and trading. Cities such as New York, and Philadelphia began to grow as seaports and commercial centers. • They grew cash crops of grain such as corn and wheat to sell to the Caribbean, earning them the nickname “breadbasket”. Middle Colonial Economy

 • The middle colonies were home to multiple religious groups, including Quakers in

• The middle colonies were home to multiple religious groups, including Quakers in Pennsylvania, Huguenots and Jews in New York, and Presbyterians in New Jersey who generally believed in religious tolerance. • These colonies had more flexible social structures and began to develop a middle class of skilled artisans, entrepreneurs (business owners), and small farmers. Middle Colony Society

Colonial Labor

Colonial Labor

 • Nathaniel Bacon rallied angry frontier indentured servants in an attack on local

• Nathaniel Bacon rallied angry frontier indentured servants in an attack on local Indi-an villages. Governor Berkeley sent the militia to stop Bacon defeated the militia and then marched on Jamestown itself– the capitol of Virginia. • Bacon united poor white and black indentured servants against the rich, land owning leaders. To make sure this never happened again, the House of Burgesses began to pass the first slave codes aimed at dividing the poor against each other. They wanted whites to be unified regardless of if they were rich or poor. Bacon’s Rebellion

Economic and political institutions in the colonies developed in ways that were either typically

Economic and political institutions in the colonies developed in ways that were either typically Europe-an or were distinctively American, as climate, soil conditions, and other natural resources shaped regional economic development. • The African slave trade and the development of a slave labor system in many of the colonies resulted from plantation economies and labor shortages. • The development of a slavery-based agricultural economy in the Southern colonies would lead to eventual conflict between the North and South and the American Civil Slave Codes: 1. black servitude is permanent & whites cannot be slaves 2. slavery is hereditary and follows the “condition of the mother” If your mom is a slave, you are a slave 3. whites & blacks cannot marry 4. blacks cannot own property 5. blacks cannot own guns Conclusions of Rebellion

Southern Colony Society

Southern Colony Society

Middle Colony Society

Middle Colony Society

New England Society

New England Society

European interest in science and reason caused people to quit going to church a

European interest in science and reason caused people to quit going to church a lot. Colonial ministers now had to convince people to attend their services. Colonists living on the frontier lived too far from churches to attend regularly. They began to create their own churches and think their own ideas. The Great Awakening

Preached “Hellfire & Brimstone” that everyone who did not attend Church was going to

Preached “Hellfire & Brimstone” that everyone who did not attend Church was going to Hell–this scared people into attending. Preached that if you go to church God will decide not to send you to Hell. His sermons were exciting and good entertainment. Results of the Great Awakening

Trade of raw materials from the American colonies to Europe in return for manufactured

Trade of raw materials from the American colonies to Europe in return for manufactured goods and African slaves.

Laws passed by Parliament to end Salutary Neglect and give England more control of

Laws passed by Parliament to end Salutary Neglect and give England more control of colonial mercantilism. Trade economies All trade must go to England No raw materials may be sold to foreign nations All trade must travel on British ships Violators must stand trial in England, not in the colonies