Breeding Resistance to Chestnut Blight Canadian Chestnut Council

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Breeding Resistance to Chestnut Blight Canadian Chestnut Council

Breeding Resistance to Chestnut Blight Canadian Chestnut Council

 • • • Background Disease testing Second Generation Nuts Size Grants and 2013

• • • Background Disease testing Second Generation Nuts Size Grants and 2013 Activities

 • • • Background Disease testing Second Generation Nut Size Grants and 2013

• • • Background Disease testing Second Generation Nut Size Grants and 2013 Activities

Revisions To Plan - 2006 Goal: to breed blight resistant American chestnuts adapted to

Revisions To Plan - 2006 Goal: to breed blight resistant American chestnuts adapted to Ontario within 20 years (from 2000). Objectives: 1. To develop blight resistant trees of 100% Canadian origin 2. To develop blight resistant trees incorporating genes from Connecticut trees such that the trees are at least 92% of Canadian origin 3. Maintain present genetic diversity of existing Canadian trees

Phase 1 1. Resistant trees will contain the known resistant genes from the Chinese

Phase 1 1. Resistant trees will contain the known resistant genes from the Chinese or Japanese trees 2. At least 20 Canadian trees will be used in the F 1 crosses. 3. Canadian parental trees will be used as the female parent in the first generation.

Phase 1 (cont. ) 4. First generation hybrid crosses will be between: ↳ Canadian

Phase 1 (cont. ) 4. First generation hybrid crosses will be between: ↳ Canadian native chestnut trees and blight resistant trees from another source. ↳ Crosses between native chestnut trees (The Endangered Species Act)

Phase 2 1. Second generation trees will come from intercrossing selected F 1 trees.

Phase 2 1. Second generation trees will come from intercrossing selected F 1 trees. 2. Parents in each cross derived from different Canadian trees.

Phase 3 • Third generation trees will come from intercrossing selected F 2 trees.

Phase 3 • Third generation trees will come from intercrossing selected F 2 trees. • Parents in each cross derived from different Canadian trees.

The mother trees 1. 43 trees selected throughout Ontario - Ontario chestnut survey (Boland

The mother trees 1. 43 trees selected throughout Ontario - Ontario chestnut survey (Boland Husband 2000) 2. 26 trees pollinated 3. Problems encountered • Trees inaccessible • Trees too tall

Map of mother trees Selected Mother Trees Pollinated Mother Trees

Map of mother trees Selected Mother Trees Pollinated Mother Trees

The father trees - Connecticut 1. Sandy's Tree back crossed twice American x {Chinese

The father trees - Connecticut 1. Sandy's Tree back crossed twice American x {Chinese x [(Japanese x European) x American]} 2. Two Trees R 2 T 10 and R 2 T 8 back crossed three times American x {American x [(Japanese x Chinese) x American]}

First Generation -767 Back-cross trees with Connecticut pollen - Sandy’s tree (BC 3) -

First Generation -767 Back-cross trees with Connecticut pollen - Sandy’s tree (BC 3) - R 2 T 8 (BC 4) -R 2 T 10 (BC 4) - 643 Canadian trees

 • • • Background Disease testing Second Generation Nut Size Grants and 2013

• • • Background Disease testing Second Generation Nut Size Grants and 2013 Activities

Mechanisms of Disease Resistance 1. Prevent fungus entering through bark 2. Produce chemicals to

Mechanisms of Disease Resistance 1. Prevent fungus entering through bark 2. Produce chemicals to kill/slow down fungus - phytoalexins 3. Surround fungus with a barrier - callus

Methods to estimate disease resistance 1. Longevity 2. Spore inoculations 3. Mycelial inoculations -

Methods to estimate disease resistance 1. Longevity 2. Spore inoculations 3. Mycelial inoculations - Branches in F 1 generation Trunks in F 2 generation

Branch Inoculations - Low levels of resistance in Canadian trees - Prevent trees dying

Branch Inoculations - Low levels of resistance in Canadian trees - Prevent trees dying - breeding genepool - 2 isolates 2 years Measure lesions at least twice Rate of expansion measured - No correlation of resistance with initial lesion growth (Fred Hebard, TACF)

Mean Daily Increase in Lesion Area 2012 25 Onondaga Farms Frequency 20 15 10

Mean Daily Increase in Lesion Area 2012 25 Onondaga Farms Frequency 20 15 10 Canadian Hybrid 5 0 21 41 62 82 103 123 144 165 185 206 226 247 267 288 309 329 350 370 391 411 Daily rate of increase in Lesion Area mm 2/day 16 Riverbend Farms 14 Frequency 12 10 8 Canadian 6 Hybrid 4 2 0 21 41 62 82 103 123 144 165 185 206 226 247 267 288 309 329 350 370 391 411 Daily rate of increase in Lesion Area mm 2/day

Daily increase in lesion area at Onondaga Farms 2011 -2012 Lesion area 2011 mm

Daily increase in lesion area at Onondaga Farms 2011 -2012 Lesion area 2011 mm 2/day 200 150 100 Canadian R 11 T 4 R 15 T 7 N R 16 T 8 N 50 Hybrid R 13 T 6 N 0 0 100 200 300 400 Lesion area 2012 mm 2/day 500 600

Canadian Trees Selected Before 2012 • Riverbend Farms • R 2 T 4, R

Canadian Trees Selected Before 2012 • Riverbend Farms • R 2 T 4, R 2 T 5, R 6 T 25 Light Cemetery x Canadian • R 6 T 58 Balough o. p. • R 7 T 75 Riverbend Farm o. p. • R 2 T 21, R 2 T 22, R 2 T 23, R 4 T 10 – Marshall x Canadian • R 7 T 77 Minnesota o. p.

Canadian Trees Selected Before 2012 • Onondaga Farm • R 1 T 9, R

Canadian Trees Selected Before 2012 • Onondaga Farm • R 1 T 9, R 1 T 18 Gundry x Canadian • R 2 T 4 Bradshaw o. p. • R 2 T 15, R 3 T 8 Light Cemetery x Canadian • R 4 T 31 Marshall x Canadian • R 12 T 18, R 12 T 23 Marshall x Dundas

Back-cross Trees Selected Before 2012 • Riverbend • R 3 T 7 • R

Back-cross Trees Selected Before 2012 • Riverbend • R 3 T 7 • R 3 T 14 • R 4 T 1 • R 5 T 10 • R 5 T 32 • R 5 T 34 Riverbend x R 2 T 8 Riverbend x Sandy Light Cemetery x R 2 T 8 Chestnut Ridge x R 2 T 10 Glen Meyer x R 2 T 8 Chestnut Ridge x Sandy

Back-cross Trees Selected Before 2012 • Riverbend (cont. ) • R 5 T 49

Back-cross Trees Selected Before 2012 • Riverbend (cont. ) • R 5 T 49 Lathrop OP • R 6 T 60 Persall x R 2 T 10 • R 7 T 1 Glen Meyer x R 2 T 10 • R 7 T 36 Hodgson 12 x Sandy

Back-cross Trees Selected before 2012 • Onondaga • R 3 T 8 • R

Back-cross Trees Selected before 2012 • Onondaga • R 3 T 8 • R 3 T 22 • R 5 T 20 • R 5 T 28 • R 5 T 29 • R 6 T 7 • R 6 T 16 • R 6 T 33 • R 7 T 37 Light Cemetery x R 2 T 8 Marshall x Sandy BR 5 x Sandy Burford x R 2 T 10 Persall x Sandy Island Lake x Sandy Gundry x R 2 T 8 Marshall x Sandy

Canadian Trees Selected in 2012 • Onondaga • R 11 T 4 N –Hodi

Canadian Trees Selected in 2012 • Onondaga • R 11 T 4 N –Hodi o. p. Riverbend Farm • R 6 T 58 Balough o. p. • R 8 T 16, R 9 T 9, R 9 T 10 Marshall x Dundas

Back-cross Trees Selected in 2012 • Onondaga • R 11 T 6 N Dundas

Back-cross Trees Selected in 2012 • Onondaga • R 11 T 6 N Dundas x R 2 T 8 • R 13 T 6 N Kerr o. p. • R 15 T 7 N GRCA x R 2 T 8 • R 16 T 8 N Kerr o. p. • R 16 T 17 N Marshal x R 2 T 10

Back-cross Trees Selected in 2012 • Riverbend Farm • R 6 T 55 Marshall

Back-cross Trees Selected in 2012 • Riverbend Farm • R 6 T 55 Marshall x R 2 T 8 • R 6 T 67 Glen Meyer x R 2 T 8 • R 8 T 75 Dundas x R 2 T 8

Progress to end of 2013 (cont. ) • Established F 2 parents nursery ↳

Progress to end of 2013 (cont. ) • Established F 2 parents nursery ↳ 54 trees -10 different parents • Developed two propagation techniques ↳ cuttings propagation ↳ etiolated sprout grafting

 • • • Background Disease testing Second Generation Nut Size Grants and 2013

• • • Background Disease testing Second Generation Nut Size Grants and 2013 Activities

Progress to end of 2013 (cont. ) • Pollination 2013 ↳ pollinated 21 trees

Progress to end of 2013 (cont. ) • Pollination 2013 ↳ pollinated 21 trees ↳ made 46 crosses ↳ collected 2006 nuts of crosses ↳ 500+ o. p. nuts from selected trees

2 nd Generation Year 2010 2011 2012 2013 Trees Planted Nuts Collected 334 1576

2 nd Generation Year 2010 2011 2012 2013 Trees Planted Nuts Collected 334 1576 195 474 2461 557 2006 Location RBF/Onondaga Casier/Onondaga

 • • • Background Disease testing Second Generation Nuts Size Grants and 2013

• • • Background Disease testing Second Generation Nuts Size Grants and 2013 Activities

Nut Size Onondaga 2012 35 Frequency of nut size 30 25 20 Canadian 15

Nut Size Onondaga 2012 35 Frequency of nut size 30 25 20 Canadian 15 Hybrid 10 5 0 0. 31 0. 63 0. 94 1. 25 1. 57 1. 88 2. 19 2. 51 2. 82 3. 14 3. 45 3. 76 4. 08 4. 39 4. 70 5. 02 5. 33 5. 64 5. 96 6. 27 Nut size (g)

Nuts Size vs Number of Nuts per Burr at Onondaga 8 Number of Nuts

Nuts Size vs Number of Nuts per Burr at Onondaga 8 Number of Nuts per Burr 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 0 1 2 3 4 Nut Size (g) 5 6 7 8

Nut size (g) 6. 22 5. 97 5. 71 5. 46 5. 21 4.

Nut size (g) 6. 22 5. 97 5. 71 5. 46 5. 21 4. 96 4. 70 4. 45 4. 20 3. 94 3. 69 3. 44 3. 18 2. 93 2. 68 2. 43 2. 17 1. 92 1. 67 1. 41 Frequency of nut size Nut Size Riverbend 2012 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 Canadian 3 Hybrid 2 1 0

Nut Size vs Number of Nuts per Burr at Riverbend 6 Number of Nuts

Nut Size vs Number of Nuts per Burr at Riverbend 6 Number of Nuts per Burr 5 4 3 2 1 0 0 1 2 3 4 Nut Size (g) 5 6 7

 • • Background Disease testing Second Generation Grants and 2014 Activities

• • Background Disease testing Second Generation Grants and 2014 Activities

Grants received • Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources – Species at Risk fund –

Grants received • Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources – Species at Risk fund – $30, 752 per year for May 2012 - Apr 2015 – CCC • in-kind contribution • Volunteers time – Activities • Breeding • Research into cuttings

2014 Activities 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Select trees from 2012/13 inoculations

2014 Activities 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Select trees from 2012/13 inoculations Remove infected trees Maintain trees as genepool for further breeding Make F 2 crosses with identified trees Initiate trunk inoculations on 2 nd generation Continue cuttings/grafting research Develop plan for distribution of nuts from resistant trees

Sponsors in alphabetical order • Agricultural Adaptation Council – CAAP fund • Species at

Sponsors in alphabetical order • Agricultural Adaptation Council – CAAP fund • Species at Risk Stewardship Fund – Government of Ontario • Tim Hortons Foundation • Riverbend Farms • The Trillium Foundation • Elgin and Norfolk Stewardship Councils • University of Guelph • All members (past and present) of the Canadian Chestnut Council