BREAKING THE CYCLE STIGMA DISCRIMINATION AND INTERNAL STIGMA

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BREAKING THE CYCLE: STIGMA, DISCRIMINATION, AND INTERNAL STIGMA MODULE 9 Stigma and Discrimination

BREAKING THE CYCLE: STIGMA, DISCRIMINATION, AND INTERNAL STIGMA MODULE 9 Stigma and Discrimination

Conceptual Framework STIGMA INTERNAL STIGMA DISCRIMINATION

Conceptual Framework STIGMA INTERNAL STIGMA DISCRIMINATION

What is stigma? § Stigma is the process of devaluing people and viewing them

What is stigma? § Stigma is the process of devaluing people and viewing them negatively on the basis of a particular attribute. § For example: § Their race, complexion, social class § HIV status, gender, sexuality

What is HIV-related stigma? § HIV-related stigma refers to prejudicial thoughts towards people living

What is HIV-related stigma? § HIV-related stigma refers to prejudicial thoughts towards people living with HIV, affected groups, and persons and communities with whom they are associated.

What is discrimination (enacted stigma)? § Discrimination is any form of arbitrary distinction, exclusion,

What is discrimination (enacted stigma)? § Discrimination is any form of arbitrary distinction, exclusion, or restriction based on stigmatised attribute. § Any action that perpetuates an unjust action or inaction against individuals who belong, or are perceived to belong, to a stigmatised group.

What is internal stigma? § In reaction to stigma from society, individuals and groups

What is internal stigma? § In reaction to stigma from society, individuals and groups may internalise, and often accept, feelings of shame, blame, and worthlessness. § Internal stigma may include withdrawing or excluding oneself from social interaction with others out of fear of other’s actions, including avoiding health services and/or intimacy.

Self-perception (shame, guilt, fear) INTERNAL STIGMA Internalising of Context • Internalising of experiences of

Self-perception (shame, guilt, fear) INTERNAL STIGMA Internalising of Context • Internalising of experiences of stigma and discrimination • Acceptance of inferiority or denigration (disapproval) • Loss of control (physical and socio-economic) Protective Action (avoidance, isolation, not always telling the truth)

Stigma layers onto existing inequalities in different realities Sexual Relations Racial Relations § Gay

Stigma layers onto existing inequalities in different realities Sexual Relations Racial Relations § Gay plague § Western disease § Prostitute propagation § African origins Gender Relations Economic Relations § Women’s disease § Disease of the rich § Caused by men northerners § Disease of the southern poor

How can we overcome stigma and discrimination? § Reduce stigma and its root causes

How can we overcome stigma and discrimination? § Reduce stigma and its root causes (underlying prejudices) in communities and institutions. § Work to decrease and eliminate discrimination and promote and protect human rights. § Find allies and work together to decrease stigma and discrimination.

How can we overcome stigma and discrimination? 2 § Increase understanding of internal or

How can we overcome stigma and discrimination? 2 § Increase understanding of internal or self- stigma and provide opportunities to build selfacceptance: § Increase self-sufficiency and internal power § Provide positive role models § Build social capital (connecting with others and working together toward common goals)

“I am like any other person. Being seropositive does not stop or limit me,

“I am like any other person. Being seropositive does not stop or limit me, but on the contrary, it motivates me. ” — Juan, diagnosed with HIV in 1997

QUESTION: What have you learned from personal experiences of confronting stigma?

QUESTION: What have you learned from personal experiences of confronting stigma?