braddnmr mgh harvard edu Functional neuroanatomy Overview of

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bradd@nmr. mgh. harvard. edu Functional neuroanatomy • Overview of brain anatomy & systems –

[email protected] mgh. harvard. edu Functional neuroanatomy • Overview of brain anatomy & systems – Localization/networks – Scale in the nervous system – Sensorimotor systems • How our brains interact with the external world (loops) – States ‘of mind’ (and body) • Specific functional systems – Memory & emotion • How our brains use previous experience to modify behavior • Vision & attention; language

Learning & memory Monday, September 13, 2004

Learning & memory Monday, September 13, 2004

Learning & memory “Knowing that” Vs. “Knowing how” Gilbert Ryle, Oxford philosopher of mind,

Learning & memory “Knowing that” Vs. “Knowing how” Gilbert Ryle, Oxford philosopher of mind, 1949

The limbic system: Memory & emotion

The limbic system: Memory & emotion

Medial temporal lobe memory system

Medial temporal lobe memory system

Medial temporal lobe memory system Courtesy of S. Heckers (J N Trans, 2002)

Medial temporal lobe memory system Courtesy of S. Heckers (J N Trans, 2002)

High-resolution MR imaging 7 Tesla ex vivo Courtesy of Jean Augustinack & Bruce Fischl

High-resolution MR imaging 7 Tesla ex vivo Courtesy of Jean Augustinack & Bruce Fischl

Learning & memory: HM H. M. Control Corkin S, J Nsci, 1997

Learning & memory: HM H. M. Control Corkin S, J Nsci, 1997

Learning & memory: HM

Learning & memory: HM

Multiple memory systems

Multiple memory systems

Medial temporal atrophy & memory in AD Left HF volume & verbal memory Right

Medial temporal atrophy & memory in AD Left HF volume & verbal memory Right HF volume & spatial memory L. de. Toledo-Morrell, B. Dickerson, et al. , Hippocampus, 2000

Medial temporal lobe atrophy in MCI Hippocampal volume Elderly controls MCI 0. 6 Mild

Medial temporal lobe atrophy in MCI Hippocampal volume Elderly controls MCI 0. 6 Mild AD * * 0. 5 0. 4 *p<. 05 0. 3 0. 2 0. 1 L R L R Dickerson BC, Neurobiol Aging, 2001

Learning & memory What task would you use to show differential hippocampal activation? (When

Learning & memory What task would you use to show differential hippocampal activation? (When is the hippocampus “off”? )

Functional MRI Paradigm Scene encoding (block design) Novel + 5 s 40 s Repeated

Functional MRI Paradigm Scene encoding (block design) Novel + 5 s 40 s Repeated + Novel + Repeated + + 25 s Adapted from C. E. Stern et al. , PNAS, 1996

Learning & memory: Novelty Stern CE, PNAS 1996

Learning & memory: Novelty Stern CE, PNAS 1996

Learning & memory: Events Brewer J, Science 1998; Wagner A, Science 1998

Learning & memory: Events Brewer J, Science 1998; Wagner A, Science 1998

Learning & memory: Individual variability in MTL activation Vandenbroucke MWJ, Neuroimage 2004

Learning & memory: Individual variability in MTL activation Vandenbroucke MWJ, Neuroimage 2004

Learning & memory: Individual variability in anatomy Vandenbroucke MWJ, Neuroimage 2004

Learning & memory: Individual variability in anatomy Vandenbroucke MWJ, Neuroimage 2004

Genetic influences on MTL activation BDNF val/val > val/met APOE 4 > 3 Bookheimer

Genetic influences on MTL activation BDNF val/val > val/met APOE 4 > 3 Bookheimer et al. , NEJM, 2000 Hariri et al. , J Neurosci, 2003

Where are memories stored? Vaidya CJ, Neuropsychologia 2002

Where are memories stored? Vaidya CJ, Neuropsychologia 2002

Multiple memory systems

Multiple memory systems

Learning & memory: Frontal lobe anatomy

Learning & memory: Frontal lobe anatomy

Learning & memory: Frontal lobe & episodic memory Brewer J, Science 1998; Wagner A,

Learning & memory: Frontal lobe & episodic memory Brewer J, Science 1998; Wagner A, Science 1998

Learning & memory: Working memory Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex: Digit span Delayed match to sample

Learning & memory: Working memory Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex: Digit span Delayed match to sample N-back

Learning & memory: Working memory D’Esposito M, 2002

Learning & memory: Working memory D’Esposito M, 2002

Learning & memory: Working memory & sleep deprivation After full night sleep After sleep

Learning & memory: Working memory & sleep deprivation After full night sleep After sleep deprivation N-back task Drummond SP, Nature 2004

Learning & memory: Striatal anatomy

Learning & memory: Striatal anatomy

Learning & memory: Striatum & procedural memory Knowlton BJ, Science 1996

Learning & memory: Striatum & procedural memory Knowlton BJ, Science 1996

Learning & memory: Competition between systems Poldrack R, Nature 2001

Learning & memory: Competition between systems Poldrack R, Nature 2001

Emotional learning & memory: Amygdala & orbitofrontal cortex Poldrack R, Nature 2001

Emotional learning & memory: Amygdala & orbitofrontal cortex Poldrack R, Nature 2001

Emotional conditioning is dependent on amygdala, declarative learning on the hippocampus Bechara A, Science

Emotional conditioning is dependent on amygdala, declarative learning on the hippocampus Bechara A, Science 1995

Amygdala activation is related to emotional intensity at encoding, and predicts recall Recognition 3

Amygdala activation is related to emotional intensity at encoding, and predicts recall Recognition 3 weeks later Canli T, J Neurosci 2000

‘Unseen’ emotional stimuli activate amygdala & can elicit emotional conditioning Morris JS, Brain 2001

‘Unseen’ emotional stimuli activate amygdala & can elicit emotional conditioning Morris JS, Brain 2001

Systems for processing facial emotion Adolphs R, Curr Opn Nbiol 2002

Systems for processing facial emotion Adolphs R, Curr Opn Nbiol 2002

Learning & memory Binding information processed by the brain for storage and future use

Learning & memory Binding information processed by the brain for storage and future use