Boys Do Cry Improving the Identification and Rehabilitation

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Boys Do Cry: Improving the Identification and Rehabilitation Strategies for Male Victims of Sexual

Boys Do Cry: Improving the Identification and Rehabilitation Strategies for Male Victims of Sexual Torture in Mexico Erika S. Valtierra-Gutierrez Valeria P. Moscoso-Urzua

Background • Sexual torture o o o Forced nudity Verbal assaults Groping Sexually humiliating

Background • Sexual torture o o o Forced nudity Verbal assaults Groping Sexually humiliating acts or comments. Blows or electric shocks to the genitals Any form of penetration. • Previous research studies o Croatia o Chile o Mexico (female victims only)

International and domestic criteria Istanbul Protocol. Manual on the Effective Investigation and Documentation of

International and domestic criteria Istanbul Protocol. Manual on the Effective Investigation and Documentation of Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (1999) - The term sexual torture is mentioned. - Description of several methods of sexual torture. - Description of specific impacts of sexual torture on males and females. Authorized Protocol for the Investigation of the Crime of Torture (2015) - The term sexual torture is not mentioned. - Terms used: sexual assault, rape. - Sexual assault conducts are not described. - Description of most common reactions to an event of torture.

Methodology • Non-representative sample of six male victims of sexual, five of which are

Methodology • Non-representative sample of six male victims of sexual, five of which are currently incarcerated. • Previous interviews made for the Specialized Medical and Psychological Verdict for Possible Torture Cases. • Interviews to the victims’ relatives between 2012 and 2014. • Complete confidentiality, no identifying data are disclosed. names or other

Results

Results

Results

Results

Results (subject 6) • Considerable sexual and social distress. • Genital beatings and shocks,

Results (subject 6) • Considerable sexual and social distress. • Genital beatings and shocks, forced nudity, and threats against female relatives. Witness of his sister’s sexual torture. • Impacts o Lack of interest in sexual activities. o Not being able to have an erection since the torture incident. o Fear of not having an erection again as a result of genital beatings (“could have switched something off”). o Fear of losing the family he has formed.

Discussion • Detected patterns of sexual torture against males in Mexico o Forced nudity

Discussion • Detected patterns of sexual torture against males in Mexico o Forced nudity and electric shocks in genitalia. o When receiving threats of using sexual violence against relatives, only women were mentioned to the victims.

Discussion • Differences from other research studies on the subject (Oosterhoff, Zwanikken & Ketting,

Discussion • Differences from other research studies on the subject (Oosterhoff, Zwanikken & Ketting, 2004; Townsend, 2006; Zawati, 2007). • Differences from research studies made on female victims in Mexico (Amnesty International, 2016). • Lack of torture techniques that would imply a sexual gratification for the attacker.

Challenges and proposals • Challenges o Incarceration • Proposals o Naming the events of

Challenges and proposals • Challenges o Incarceration • Proposals o Naming the events of torture as sexual torture. o Maintaining or forming new support networks o Reestablishing their masculinity through gender based interventions.

Significance and limitations • Significance o A first approach to identify patters of sexual

Significance and limitations • Significance o A first approach to identify patters of sexual torture on male individuals in Mexico. o Sexual torture methods other than rape. • Limitations o Non-representative sample size. o The objective of the interviews. o Difficulty for further contact.