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Boundless Lecture Slides Available on the Boundless Teaching Platform Free to share, print, make

Boundless Lecture Slides Available on the Boundless Teaching Platform Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www. boundless. com

Boundless Teaching Platform Boundless empowers educators to engage their students with affordable, customizable textbooks

Boundless Teaching Platform Boundless empowers educators to engage their students with affordable, customizable textbooks and intuitive teaching tools. The free Boundless Teaching Platform gives educators the ability to customize textbooks in more than 20 subjects that align to hundreds of popular titles. Get started by using high quality Boundless books, or make switching to our platform easier by building from Boundless content pre-organized to match the assigned textbook. This platform gives educators the tools they need to assign readings and assessments, monitor student activity, and lead their classes with pre-made teaching resources. Using Boundless Presentations The Appendix The appendix is for you to use to add depth and breadth to your lectures. You can simply drag and drop slides from the appendix into the main presentation to make for a richer lecture experience. Get started now at: http: //boundless. com/teaching-platform Free to edit, share, and copy Feel free to edit, share, and make as many copies of the Boundless presentations as you like. We encourage you to take these presentations and make them your own. If you have any questions or problems please email: [email protected] com Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www. boundless. com

About Boundless is an innovative technology company making education more affordable and accessible for

About Boundless is an innovative technology company making education more affordable and accessible for students everywhere. The company creates the world’s best open educational content in 20+ subjects that align to more than 1, 000 popular college textbooks. Boundless integrates learning technology into all its premium books to help students study more efficiently at a fraction of the cost of traditional textbooks. The company also empowers educators to engage their students more effectively through customizable books and intuitive teaching tools as part of the Boundless Teaching Platform. More than 2 million learners access Boundless free and premium content each month across the company’s wide distribution platforms, including its website, i. OS apps, Kindle books, and i. Books. To get started learning or teaching with Boundless, visit boundless. com. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www. boundless. com

Pathogenicity Entry into the Host Overview of Microbe-Host Interactions Penetrating Host Defenses Damaging Host

Pathogenicity Entry into the Host Overview of Microbe-Host Interactions Penetrating Host Defenses Damaging Host Cells Surviving Within the Host and Exiting the Host Pathogenicity Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www. boundless. com

Pathogenicity (continued) Pathogenicity and Other Microbes Pathogenicity Free to share, print, make copies and

Pathogenicity (continued) Pathogenicity and Other Microbes Pathogenicity Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www. boundless. com

Pathogenicity > Entry into the Host • Portals of Microbe Entry • Colonization and

Pathogenicity > Entry into the Host • Portals of Microbe Entry • Colonization and Growth • Pathogenicity Islands and Virulence Factors • Adherence • Host Risk Factors • Innate Resistance Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www. boundless. com/microbiology/textbooks/boundless-microbiology-textbook/pathogenicity-14/entry-into-the-host-161/

Pathogenicity > Overview of Microbe-Host Interactions • Normal Microbiota and Host Relationships • Opportunistic

Pathogenicity > Overview of Microbe-Host Interactions • Normal Microbiota and Host Relationships • Opportunistic Microorganisms • Cooperation Among Microorganisms Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www. boundless. com/microbiology/textbooks/boundless-microbiology-textbook/pathogenicity-14/overview-of-microbe-host-interactions-162/

Pathogenicity > Penetrating Host Defenses • Pili and Pilus Assembly • Biofilms and Infections

Pathogenicity > Penetrating Host Defenses • Pili and Pilus Assembly • Biofilms and Infections Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www. boundless. com/microbiology/textbooks/boundless-microbiology-textbook/pathogenicity-14/penetrating-host-defenses-163/

Pathogenicity > Damaging Host Cells • Toxins • Direct Damage • Type III and

Pathogenicity > Damaging Host Cells • Toxins • Direct Damage • Type III and Type IV Secretion • Plasmids and Lysogeny • Siderophores Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www. boundless. com/microbiology/textbooks/boundless-microbiology-textbook/pathogenicity-14/damaging-host-cells-164/

Pathogenicity > Surviving Within the Host and Exiting the Host • Intracellular Pathogens •

Pathogenicity > Surviving Within the Host and Exiting the Host • Intracellular Pathogens • Extracellular Immune Avoidance • Regulating Virulence • Portals of Exit Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www. boundless. com/microbiology/textbooks/boundless-microbiology-textbook/pathogenicity-14/surviving-within-the-host-and-exiting-the-host-165/

Pathogenicity > Pathogenicity and Other Microbes • Fungi • Protozoa • Helminths • Algae

Pathogenicity > Pathogenicity and Other Microbes • Fungi • Protozoa • Helminths • Algae Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www. boundless. com/microbiology/textbooks/boundless-microbiology-textbook/pathogenicity-14/pathogenicity-and-other-microbes-166/

Appendix Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www. boundless.

Appendix Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www. boundless. com

Pathogenicity Key terms • adhesin Any of several factors that enable bacteria to adhere

Pathogenicity Key terms • adhesin Any of several factors that enable bacteria to adhere to epithelial surfaces as a step towards infection. • alga any of many aquatic photosynthetic organisms, whose size ranges from a single cell to giant kelps and whose form is very diverse • altruism Regard for others, both natural and moral; devotion to the interests of others; brotherly kindness; – opposed to egoism or selfishness. • antigenic variation The mechanism by which an infectious organism changes its surface proteins in favor of circumventing a host immune response. • bacterial conjugation transfer of genetic material between bacterial cells by direct contact • bacteriophage A virus that specifically infects bacteria. • basionym An earlier valid scientific name of a species that has since been renamed and from which the new name is partially derived. • biofilm A thin film of mucus created by and containing a colony of bacteria and other microorganisms. • chelating agent A compound that reacts with a metal ion to produce a chelate. • colitis inflammation of the colon. • contagious Of a person, having a disease that can be transmitted to another person by touch. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www. boundless. com

Pathogenicity • Cooperation Association for mutual benefit. • cyst a pouch or sac without

Pathogenicity • Cooperation Association for mutual benefit. • cyst a pouch or sac without opening, usually membranous and containing morbid matter, which develops in one of the natural cavities or in the substance of an organ • cytokines Regulatory proteins that function in the regulation of the cells involved in immune system function • diphtheria A disease of the upper respiratory tract caused by a toxin secreted by Corynebacterium diphtheriae. • dormant cyst A resting or dormant stage of a microorganism • effector a small molecule that effects additional molecules • endotoxin Any toxin secreted by a microorganism and released into the surrounding environment only when it dies. • exotoxin Any toxin secreted by a microorganism into the surrounding environment. • fimbriae Fine filaments of protein distributed over the surface of bacteria that are believed to be involved in attachment to solid surfaces or to other cells, and are essential for the virulence of some bacterial pathogens. • flora the microorganisms that inhabit some part of the body, such as intestinal flora • helminth A parasitic roundworm or flatworm. • host A cell or organism which harbors another organism or biological entity, usually a parasite. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www. boundless. com

Pathogenicity • Human microbiome The aggregate of microorganisms that reside on the surface and

Pathogenicity • Human microbiome The aggregate of microorganisms that reside on the surface and in deep layers of skin, in the saliva and oral mucosa, in the conjunctiva, and in the gastrointestinal tracts. • immunodeficiency A depletion in the body's natural immune system, or in some component of it. • infection An uncontrolled growth of harmful microorganisms in a host. • infectious Infectious diseases, also known as transmissible diseases or communicable diseases, comprise clinically evident illness (i. e. , characteristic medical signs and/or symptoms of disease) resulting from the infection, presence, and growth of pathogenic biological agents in an individual host organism. • interferon Any of a group of glycoproteins, produced by the immune system, that prevent viral replication in infected cells. • lymphatic system In mammals, including humans, a network of lymph vessels and lymph nodes that transport fluid, fats, proteins, and lymphocytes to the bloodstream as lymph, and remove microorganisms and other debris from tissues. • lysogeny the process by which a bacteriophage incorporates its nucleic acids into a host bacterium • lysozyme A bacteriolytic (or antibiotic) enzyme found in many animal secretions and in egg white. • microbiota The microbial flora harbored by normal, healthy individuals. • microorganism An organism that is too small to be seen by the unaided eye, especially a single-celled organism, such as a bacterium. • mutualism A relationship between individuals of different species in which both individuals benefit Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www. boundless. com

Pathogenicity • mycotoxin Any substance produced by a mold or fungus that is injurious

Pathogenicity • mycotoxin Any substance produced by a mold or fungus that is injurious to vertebrates upon ingestion, inhalation, or skin contact. • opportunist when an organism takes advantage of any opportunity to advance its own situation. • Opportunistic Taking advantage of situations that arise. • opportunistic infection Any infection that causes disease and occurs only when the host's immune system is impaired. • pathogen Any organism or substance, especially a microorganism, capable of causing disease, such as bacteria, viruses, protozoa, or fungi. Microorganisms are not considered to be pathogenic until they have reached a population size that is large enough to cause disease. • pathogenicity island A distinct class of genomic islands acquired by microorganisms through horizontal gene transfer. • peptidoglycan A polymer of glycan and peptides found in bacterial cell walls. • phagocytosis the process by which a cell incorporates foreign particles intracellularly. • pilus A hair-like appendage found on the cell surface of many bacteria. • prion A self-propagating misfolded conformer of a protein that is responsible for a number of diseases that affect the brain and other neural tissue. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www. boundless. com

Pathogenicity • protozoa Protozoa are a diverse group of unicellular eukaryotic organisms, many of

Pathogenicity • protozoa Protozoa are a diverse group of unicellular eukaryotic organisms, many of which are motile. Originally, protozoa had been defined as unicellular protists with animal-like behavior, e. g. , movement. Protozoa were regarded as the partner group of protists to protophyta, which have plant-like behavior, e. g. , photosynthesis. • siderophore Any medium-sized molecule that has a high specificity for binding or chelating iron; they are employed by microorganisms to obtain iron from the environment • sterile unable to reproduce (or procreate) • symbiont An organism that lives in a symbiotic relationship; a symbiote. • thalloid Of a plant, alga, or fungus lacking complex organization, especially lacking distinct stems, roots, or leaves. • transmission Transmission is the passing of a communicable disease from an infected host individual or group to a conspecific individual or group, regardless of whether the other individual was previously infected. • trophozoite A protozoan in the feeding stage of its life cycle. • vaccination inoculation with a vaccine in order to protect a particular disease or strain of disease. • virulence The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of parasites as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host and it is determined by virulence factors. • virulence factor Molecules expressed and secreted by pathogens (bacteria, viruses, fungi and protozoa) that enable them to achieve colonization of a niche in the host, immunoevasion, immunosuppression, entry into and out of the cells, and obtaining nutrition from the host. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www. boundless. com

Pathogenicity Escherichia coli This is a magnified view of Escherichia coli (or E. coli).

Pathogenicity Escherichia coli This is a magnified view of Escherichia coli (or E. coli). Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www. boundless. com Wikipedia. "Escherichia. Coli NIAID. " CC BY-SA http: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/File: Escherichia. Coli_NIAID. jpg View on Boundless. com

Pathogenicity Bacterial Conjugation A schematic drawing of bacterial conjugation. Conjugation diagram 1 - Donor

Pathogenicity Bacterial Conjugation A schematic drawing of bacterial conjugation. Conjugation diagram 1 - Donor cell produces pilus. 2 - Pilus attaches to recipient cell, brings the two cells together. 3 - The mobile plasmid is nicked, and a single strand of DNA is then transferred to the recipient cell. 4 - Both cells recircularize their plasmids, synthesize second strands, and reproduce pili; both cells are now viable donors. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www. boundless. com Wikimedia. "Conjugation. " CC BY-SA http: //commons. wikimedia. org/wiki/File: Conjugation. svg View on Boundless. com

Pathogenicity Tuberculosis Culture The bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis can evolve to subvert the protection offered

Pathogenicity Tuberculosis Culture The bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis can evolve to subvert the protection offered by immune defenses. This close-up reveals this organism's colonial morphology. Note the colorless rough surface, which are typical morphologic characteristics seen in Mycobacterium tuberculosis colonial growth. Macroscopic examination of colonial growth patterns is still one of the ways microorganisms are often identified. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www. boundless. com Wikipedia. "TB Culture. " Public domain https: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/File: TB_Culture. jpg View on Boundless. com

Pathogenicity Biofilm development 5 stages of biofilm development. Stage 1, initial attachment; stage 2,

Pathogenicity Biofilm development 5 stages of biofilm development. Stage 1, initial attachment; stage 2, irreversible attachment; stage 3, maturation I; stage 4, maturation II; stage 5, dispersion. Each stage of development in the diagram is paired with a photomicrograph of a developing Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm. All photomicrographs are shown to same scale. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www. boundless. com Wikipedia. "Biofilm. " CC BY-SA http: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/File: Biofilm. jpg View on Boundless. com

Pathogenicity Cephaleuros virescens Infestation of the algal leaf spot (Cephaleuros virescens) on ther southern

Pathogenicity Cephaleuros virescens Infestation of the algal leaf spot (Cephaleuros virescens) on ther southern magnolia (Magnolia grandiflora); Green-orange algal spots or "green scruf" on leaf surface. The grayish-white and darker "crusts" are lichens of the genus Strigula resulting from fungal colonization of the alga. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www. boundless. com Wikimedia. "Cephaleuros virescens 01. " CC BY http: //commons. wikimedia. org/wiki/File: Cephaleuros_virescens 01. jpg View on Boundless. com

Pathogenicity E. coli fimbriae In bacteriology, a fimbria (plural fimbriae; abbreviated FIM) is an

Pathogenicity E. coli fimbriae In bacteriology, a fimbria (plural fimbriae; abbreviated FIM) is an appendage composed of curlin proteins that can be found on many Gram-negative and some Gram-positive bacteria that is thinner and shorter than a flagellum. This appendage ranges from 3 -10 nanometers in diameter and can be up to several micrometers long. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www. boundless. com Wikipedia. "E. coli fimbriae. " CC BY http: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/File: E. _coli_fimbriae. png View on Boundless. com

Pathogenicity Hookworms The hookworms attached to the intestinal mucosa. Free to share, print, make

Pathogenicity Hookworms The hookworms attached to the intestinal mucosa. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www. boundless. com Wikipedia. "Hookworms. " Public domain http: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/File: Hookworms. JPG View on Boundless. com

Pathogenicity Methanogenic Bacteria in Termites Methanogenic bacteria have a syntrophic relationship with protozoans living

Pathogenicity Methanogenic Bacteria in Termites Methanogenic bacteria have a syntrophic relationship with protozoans living in the guts of termites. The protozoans break down cellulose, releasing H 2 which is then used in methanogenesis. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www. boundless. com Wikipedia. "Coptotermes formosanus shiraki USGov k 8204 -7. " Public domain http: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/File: Coptotermes_formosanus_shiraki_USGov_k 82047. jpg View on Boundless. com

Pathogenicity How C. difficile spreads C. difficile is transmitted from person to person by

Pathogenicity How C. difficile spreads C. difficile is transmitted from person to person by the fecal-oral route. The organism forms large numbers of heat-resistant spores. These are not killed by alcohol-based hand cleansers or routine cleaning of surfaces. These spores remain viable in the hospital or nursing home environment for long periods of time. Because of this, the bacteria can be cultured from almost any surface in the hospital. Once spores are ingested by a patient, they pass through the stomach unscathed because of their acid-resistance. They germinate into vegetative cells in the colon upon exposure to bile acids, and multiply. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www. boundless. com Wikipedia. "How C. difficile spreads. " Public domain http: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/File: How_C. _difficile_spreads. png View on Boundless. com

Pathogenicity Horizontal Gene Transfer There are three mechanisms by which horizontal gene transfer can

Pathogenicity Horizontal Gene Transfer There are three mechanisms by which horizontal gene transfer can occur. Specifically, the exchange of plasmid DNA falls under transformation. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www. boundless. com Michigan%20 State%20 University. "Horizontal%20 Gene%20 Transfer%20%E 2%80%94%20 Antimicrobial%20 Resistance%20 Learning%20 Site%20 For%20 Veterinary%20 Students. " CC BY

Pathogenicity Malaria Life Cycle Example of a life cycle promoting pathogenicity of a protozoa,

Pathogenicity Malaria Life Cycle Example of a life cycle promoting pathogenicity of a protozoa, specifically the malaria parasite. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www. boundless. com Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. "CDC - Malaria - About Malaria - Biology. " Public domain http: //www. cdc. gov/malaria/about/biology/ View on Boundless. com

Pathogenicity HIV This is a magnified view of HIV budding from a lymphocyte. Free

Pathogenicity HIV This is a magnified view of HIV budding from a lymphocyte. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www. boundless. com Wikipedia. "HIV-budding-Color. " CC BY-SA http: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/File: HIV-budding-Color. jpg View on Boundless. com

Pathogenicity Candida A Candida infection seen from a pap test specimen. Free to share,

Pathogenicity Candida A Candida infection seen from a pap test specimen. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www. boundless. com Wikipedia. "Candida pap 1. " CC BY-SA http: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/File: Candida_pap_1. jpg View on Boundless. com

Pathogenicity Chest x-ray of a patient with tuberculosis. In this chest X-ray of a

Pathogenicity Chest x-ray of a patient with tuberculosis. In this chest X-ray of a person with advanced tuberculosis, the infections in both lungs are marked by white arrowheads and the formation of a cavity is marked by black arrows. The boundary between contagious and non-contagious infectious diseases is not perfectly drawn, as illustrated by tuberculosis, which is clearly transmissible from person to person, but was not classically considered a contagious disease. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www. boundless. com Wikipedia. "Tuberculosis-x-ray-1. " Public domain http: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/File: Tuberculosis-x-ray-1. jpg View on Boundless. com

Pathogenicity Gut Flora Gut flora consists of microorganisms such as Escherichia Coli that live

Pathogenicity Gut Flora Gut flora consists of microorganisms such as Escherichia Coli that live in the digestive tracts of animals. It is the largest reservoir of human flora. In this context, gut is synonymous with intestinal, and flora with microbiota and microflora. The word microbiome is also in use. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www. boundless. com Wikimedia. Public domain http: //upload. wikimedia. org/wikipedia/commons/3/32/Escherichia. Coli_NIAID. jpg View on Boundless. com

Pathogenicity Staphylococcus aureus Staphylococcus is a Gram-positive bacteria which includes several species that can

Pathogenicity Staphylococcus aureus Staphylococcus is a Gram-positive bacteria which includes several species that can cause a wide variety of infections in humans and other animals through infection or the production of toxins. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www. boundless. com Wikipedia. "Staphylococcus aureus 01. " Public domain http: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/File: Staphylococcus_aureus_01. jpg%23 filelinks View on Boundless. com

Pathogenicity Staphylococcus aureus biofilm Staphylococcus aureus forming a biofilm on a catheter. Free to

Pathogenicity Staphylococcus aureus biofilm Staphylococcus aureus forming a biofilm on a catheter. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www. boundless. com Wikipedia. "Staphylococcus aureus biofilm 01. " Public domain http: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/File: Staphylococcus_aureus_biofilm_01. jpg%23 filelinks View on Boundless. com

Pathogenicity Trimeric Autotransporter Adhesin structure The structure on the top (outside) of the outer

Pathogenicity Trimeric Autotransporter Adhesin structure The structure on the top (outside) of the outer membrane is a TAA protein. Various parts of the TAA are labelled, including the N-terminal head, stalk domain and C-terminal membrane anchor. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www. boundless. com Wikipedia. "Taabasic 1. " CC BY-SA http: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/File: Taabasic 1. jpg View on Boundless. com

Pathogenicity Staphylococcus aureus biofilm Staphylococcus aureus forming a biofilm on a catheter. Free to

Pathogenicity Staphylococcus aureus biofilm Staphylococcus aureus forming a biofilm on a catheter. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www. boundless. com Wikipedia. "Staphylococcus%20 aureus%20 biofilm%2001. " Public domain http: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/File: Staphylococcus_aureus_biofilm_01. jpg%23 filelinks View on Boundless. com

Pathogenicity Stanley Prusiner discovered prions, which are a class of infectious self-reproducing pathogens primarily

Pathogenicity Stanley Prusiner discovered prions, which are a class of infectious self-reproducing pathogens primarily or solely composed of protein. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www. boundless. com Wikipedia. "Prusiner 1. " Public domain http: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/File: Prusiner_1. JPG%23 filelinks View on Boundless. com

Pathogenicity Protected from Phagocytosis Staphylococcus aureus exhibit physical properties, specifically a capsule, that protect

Pathogenicity Protected from Phagocytosis Staphylococcus aureus exhibit physical properties, specifically a capsule, that protect the bacteria from phagocytosis. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www. boundless. com Wikipedia. "Phagocyte. " GNU FDL http: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Phagocyte%23 Host_damage_by_phagocytes View on Boundless. com

Pathogenicity Lysogenic and lytic cycles Schematic of lysogenic and lytic cycle utilized by viruses

Pathogenicity Lysogenic and lytic cycles Schematic of lysogenic and lytic cycle utilized by viruses to ensure viral reproduction. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www. boundless. com Wikidoc. "File: Viral%20 Reproduction%20 Chart. png%20 -%20 wikidoc. " CC BY-SA http: //ro. wikidoc. org/index. php/File: Viral_Reproduction_Chart. png View on Boundless. com

Pathogenicity Sneezing can spread disease by launching disease vectors into the air. Free to

Pathogenicity Sneezing can spread disease by launching disease vectors into the air. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www. boundless. com Wikipedia. "Sneeze. " Public domain http: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/File: Sneeze. JPG%23 filelinks View on Boundless. com

Pathogenicity Bacterial Toxin Mechanism of Action A schematic of various processes utilized by bacterial

Pathogenicity Bacterial Toxin Mechanism of Action A schematic of various processes utilized by bacterial toxins to damage host cells. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www. boundless. com Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. "Figure 1 - Bacterial Toxins: Friends or Foes? - Volume 5, Number 2—April 1999 - Emerging Infectious Disease journal - CDC. " Public domain http: //wwwnc. cdc. gov/eid/article/5/2/99 -0206 -f 1. htm View on Boundless. com

Pathogenicity Type IV Secretion System Type IV secretion systems are characterized by the ability

Pathogenicity Type IV Secretion System Type IV secretion systems are characterized by the ability to transfer material using machinery similar to the bacterial conjugation machinery. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www. boundless. com Wikipedia. "File: T 4 SS. svg - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. " CC BY-SA http: //en. wikipedia. org/w/index. php? title=File: T 4 SS. svg&page=1 View on Boundless. com

Pathogenicity Type III Secretion System The type III secretion system is characterized by the

Pathogenicity Type III Secretion System The type III secretion system is characterized by the ability to inject secretory molecules into the host eukaryotic cell. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www. boundless. com Wikipedia. "T 3 SS needle complex. " Public domain http: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/File: T 3 SS_needle_complex. svg View on Boundless. com

Pathogenicity Escherichia coli O 157: H 7 Topographical images of colonies of E. coli

Pathogenicity Escherichia coli O 157: H 7 Topographical images of colonies of E. coli O 157: H 7 strains (A) 43895 OW (curli non-producing) and (B) 43895 OR (curli producing) grown on agar for 48 h at 28°C. Escherichia coli O 157: H 7 is an enterohemorrhagic strain of the bacterium Escherichia coli and a cause of food borne illness. Infection often leads to hemorrhagic diarrhea and occasionally to kidney failure, especially in young children and elderly persons. Transmission is via the fecal-oral route. Most illness has been associated with eating under cooked, contaminated ground beef or ground pork, swimming in or drinking contaminated water, or eating contaminated vegetables. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www. boundless. com Wikipedia. "EColi. CRIS 051 -Fig 2. " Public domain http: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/File: EColi. CRIS 051 -Fig 2. jpg View on Boundless. com

Pathogenicity Leishmania donovani, (a species of protozoa) in a bone marrow cell. Free to

Pathogenicity Leishmania donovani, (a species of protozoa) in a bone marrow cell. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www. boundless. com Wikipedia. "Leishmania donovani 01. " Public domain http: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/File: Leishmania_donovani_01. png View on Boundless. com

Pathogenicity Attribution • Wikipedia. "Infection. " CC BY-SA 3. 0 http: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Infection%23

Pathogenicity Attribution • Wikipedia. "Infection. " CC BY-SA 3. 0 http: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Infection%23 Colonization • Wiktionary. "infection. " CC BY-SA 3. 0 http: //en. wiktionary. org/wiki/infection • Wikipedia. "Virulence. " CC BY-SA 3. 0 http: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Virulence • Wikipedia. "Human microbiome. " CC BY-SA 3. 0 http: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Human%20 microbiome • Wikipedia. "Infection. " CC BY-SA 3. 0 http: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Infection • Wikipedia. "Normal flora. " CC BY-SA 3. 0 http: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Normal_flora • Open. Stax CNX. "Open. Stax College, The Immune Response against Pathogens. January 16, 2014. " CC BY 3. 0 http: //cnx. org/contents/bcad 1027 -425 a-4419 -b 0 fc-9 d 445 dfe 425 [email protected] • Wikipedia. "Helminthes. " CC BY-SA 3. 0 http: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Helminthes • Wiktionary. "lymphatic system. " CC BY-SA 3. 0 http: //en. wiktionary. org/wiki/lymphatic_system • Wiktionary. "helminth. " CC BY-SA 3. 0 http: //en. wiktionary. org/wiki/helminth • Wikipedia. "fimbriae. " CC BY-SA 3. 0 http: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/fimbriae • Wikipedia. "Bacteria. " CC BY-SA 3. 0 http: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Bacteria • Wikipedia. "Adhesins. " CC BY-SA 3. 0 http: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Adhesins • Wiktionary. "adhesin. " CC BY-SA 3. 0 http: //en. wiktionary. org/wiki/adhesin • Wikipedia. "Pathogen. " CC BY-SA 3. 0 http: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Pathogen%23 Types_of_pathogen • Wiktionary. "pathogen. " CC BY-SA 3. 0 http: //en. wiktionary. org/wiki/pathogen Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www. boundless. com

Pathogenicity • Wiktionary. "prion. " CC BY-SA 3. 0 http: //en. wiktionary. org/wiki/prion •

Pathogenicity • Wiktionary. "prion. " CC BY-SA 3. 0 http: //en. wiktionary. org/wiki/prion • Wikipedia. "Phagocyte. " CC BY-SA 3. 0 http: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Phagocyte%23 Host_damage_by_phagocytes • Wikipedia. "Corynebacterium diphtheriae. " CC BY-SA 3. 0 http: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Corynebacterium_diphtheriae • Wiktionary. "diphtheria. " CC BY-SA 3. 0 http: //en. wiktionary. org/wiki/diphtheria • Wiktionary. "phagocytosis. " CC BY-SA 3. 0 http: //en. wiktionary. org/wiki/phagocytosis • National Insitute of Health. "Diseases - Understanding Infectious Diseases, page 1. " Public domain http: //science. education. nih. gov/supplements/nih 1/diseases/guide/understanding 1. htm • Wiktionary. "pathogen. " CC BY-SA 3. 0 http: //en. wiktionary. org/wiki/pathogen • Wiktionary. "biofilm. " CC BY-SA 3. 0 http: //en. wiktionary. org/wiki/biofilm • Wiktionary. "antigenic variation. " CC BY-SA 3. 0 http: //en. wiktionary. org/wiki/antigenic_variation • Wikibooks. "Structural Biochemistry/Genetic code/Immune System. " CC BY-SA 3. 0 http: //en. wikibooks. org/wiki/Structural_Biochemistry/Genetic_code/Immune_System%23 Pathogen. E 2. 80. 99 s_Evade_the_Imm une_System • Wikipedia. "Microbial toxins. " CC BY-SA 3. 0 http: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Microbial_toxins • Wikipedia. "Mycotoxin. " CC BY-SA 3. 0 http: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Mycotoxin • Wikipedia. "Listeriolysin O. " CC BY-SA 3. 0 http: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Listeriolysin_O • Wikipedia. "Lipopolysaccharide. " CC BY-SA 3. 0 http: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Lipopolysaccharide • Wikipedia. "Claviceps. " CC BY-SA 3. 0 http: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Claviceps Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www. boundless. com

Pathogenicity • Wikipedia. "Toxin. " CC BY-SA 3. 0 http: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Toxin •

Pathogenicity • Wikipedia. "Toxin. " CC BY-SA 3. 0 http: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Toxin • Wikipedia. "Staphylococcal Enterotoxin B. " CC BY-SA 3. 0 http: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Staphylococcal_Enterotoxin_B • Wiktionary. "cytokines. " CC BY-SA 3. 0 http: //en. wiktionary. org/wiki/cytokines • Wiktionary. "exotoxin. " CC BY-SA 3. 0 http: //en. wiktionary. org/wiki/exotoxin • Wikipedia. "Microbial toxins. " CC BY-SA 3. 0 http: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Microbial_toxins%23 Mycotoxins • Wiktionary. "endotoxin. " CC BY-SA 3. 0 http: //en. wiktionary. org/wiki/endotoxin • U. S. Food and Drug Administration. Public domain http: //www. fda. gov/downloads/Food. Safety/Foodborne. Illness. Foodborne. Pathogens. Natural. Toxins/Bad. Bu g. Book/UCM 297627. pdf • National Insitute of Health. "Toxins: Medline. Plus Medical Encyclopedia. " Public domain http: //www. nlm. nih. gov/medlineplus/ency/article/002331. htm • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. "Bacterial Toxins: Friends or Foes? . " Public domain http: //wwwnc. cdc. gov/eid/article/5/2/99 -0206_article. htm • Wikipedia. "Virulence factor. " CC BY-SA 3. 0 http: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Virulence_factor • Wikipedia. "Virulence. " CC BY-SA 3. 0 https: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Virulence • Wikipedia. "virulence. " CC BY-SA 3. 0 http: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/virulence • Wikipedia. "Virulence. " CC BY-SA 3. 0 http: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Virulence • Wikipedia. "Human microbiome. " CC BY-SA 3. 0 http: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Human_microbiome • Wiktionary. "interferon. " CC BY-SA 3. 0 http: //en. wiktionary. org/wiki/interferon • Wiktionary. "microorganism. " CC BY-SA 3. 0 http: //en. wiktionary. org/wiki/microorganism • Wikipedia. "Escherichia coli. " CC BY-SA 3. 0 http: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Escherichia_coli%23 Role_as_normal_microbiota • Wiktionary. "host. " CC BY-SA 3. 0 http: //en. wiktionary. org/wiki/host Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www. boundless. com

Pathogenicity • Wikipedia. "Pilus. " CC BY-SA 3. 0 http: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Pilus •

Pathogenicity • Wikipedia. "Pilus. " CC BY-SA 3. 0 http: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Pilus • Wiktionary. "pilus. " CC BY-SA 3. 0 http: //en. wiktionary. org/wiki/pilus • Wikipedia. "Haemophilus ducreyi. " CC BY-SA 3. 0 http: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Haemophilus_ducreyi • Wikipedia. "Hiv. " CC BY-SA 3. 0 http: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Hiv • Wikipedia. "Opportunistic infection. " CC BY-SA 3. 0 http: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Opportunistic_infection • Wikipedia. "Microorganisms. " CC BY-SA 3. 0 http: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Microorganisms • Wikipedia. "Opportunism. " CC BY-SA 3. 0 http: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Opportunism%23 Biological_opportunism • Wiktionary. "microorganism. " CC BY-SA 3. 0 http: //en. wiktionary. org/wiki/microorganism • Wiktionary. "immunodeficiency. " CC BY-SA 3. 0 http: //en. wiktionary. org/wiki/immunodeficiency • Wiktionary. "Opportunistic. " CC BY-SA 3. 0 http: //en. wiktionary. org/wiki/Opportunistic • Wikipedia. "Ferrichrome. " CC BY-SA 3. 0 http: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Ferrichrome • Wikipedia. "Iron in microbiology. " CC BY-SA 3. 0 http: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Iron_in_microbiology • Wikipedia. "Siderophore. " CC BY-SA 3. 0 http: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Siderophore • Wikipedia. "Enterobactin. " CC BY-SA 3. 0 http: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Enterobactin • Wiktionary. "siderophore. " CC BY-SA 3. 0 http: //en. wiktionary. org/wiki/siderophore • Wiktionary. "chelating agent. " CC BY-SA 3. 0 http: //en. wiktionary. org/wiki/chelating_agent • Wikipedia. "Yersiniabactin. " CC BY-SA 3. 0 http: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Yersiniabactin Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www. boundless. com

Pathogenicity • Wikipedia. "Yersiniabactin. " CC BY-SA 3. 0 http: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Yersiniabactin •

Pathogenicity • Wikipedia. "Yersiniabactin. " CC BY-SA 3. 0 http: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Yersiniabactin • Wikipedia. "Horizontal gene transfer. " CC BY-SA 3. 0 http: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Horizontal_gene_transfer • Wikipedia. "Plasmids. " CC BY-SA 3. 0 http: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Plasmids • Wikipedia. "Vibrio cholerae. " CC BY-SA 3. 0 http: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Vibrio_cholerae%23 Bacteriophage_CTX. CF. 86 • Wikipedia. "Lysogenic cycle. " CC BY-SA 3. 0 http: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Lysogenic_cycle • Ask a Biologist. "Plasmids. " CC BY-SA 3. 0 http: //askabiologist. asu. edu/plasmids • Wiktionary. "lysogeny. " CC BY-SA 3. 0 http: //en. wiktionary. org/wiki/lysogeny • Wiktionary. "bacteriophage. " CC BY-SA 3. 0 http: //en. wiktionary. org/wiki/bacteriophage • Wikidoc. "Lytic cycle - wikidoc. " CC BY-SA http: //ro. wikidoc. org/index. php/Lytic_cycle • Wikidoc. "Lysogenic cycle - wikidoc. " CC BY-SA http: //ro. wikidoc. org/index. php/Lysogenic_cycle • Wikipedia. "transmission. " CC BY-SA 3. 0 http: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/transmission • Wikipedia. "Transmission (medicine). " CC BY-SA 3. 0 http: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Transmission_(medicine) • Wikipedia. "Immune system. " CC BY-SA 3. 0 http: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Immune_system • Wikipedia. "Human flora. " CC BY-SA 3. 0 http: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Human_flora%23 cite_note-11 • Wiktionary. "microbiota. " CC BY-SA 3. 0 http: //en. wiktionary. org/wiki/microbiota • Wiktionary. "lysozyme. " CC BY-SA 3. 0 http: //en. wiktionary. org/wiki/lysozyme • Wiktionary. "flora. " CC BY-SA 3. 0 http: //en. wiktionary. org/wiki/flora • Wiktionary. "sterile. " CC BY-SA 3. 0 http: //en. wiktionary. org/wiki/sterile Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www. boundless. com

Pathogenicity • Wiktionary. "biofilm. " CC BY-SA 3. 0 http: //en. wiktionary. org/wiki/biofilm •

Pathogenicity • Wiktionary. "biofilm. " CC BY-SA 3. 0 http: //en. wiktionary. org/wiki/biofilm • Wikipedia. "Biofilms. " CC BY-SA 3. 0 http: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Biofilms • Wikipedia. "Cephaleuros. " CC BY-SA 3. 0 http: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Cephaleuros • Wikipedia. "Protothecosis. " CC BY-SA 3. 0 http: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Protothecosis • Wikipedia. "Algal bloom. " CC BY-SA 3. 0 http: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Algal_bloom • Wiktionary. "thalloid. " CC BY-SA 3. 0 http: //en. wiktionary. org/wiki/thalloid • Wiktionary. "basionym. " CC BY-SA 3. 0 http: //en. wiktionary. org/wiki/basionym • Wiktionary. "alga. " CC BY-SA 3. 0 http: //en. wiktionary. org/wiki/alga • Wikimedia. "Cephaleuros virescens 01. " CC BY-SA 3. 0 http: //commons. wikimedia. org/wiki/File: Cephaleuros_virescens 01. jpg • Wikipedia. "Protozoa. " CC BY-SA 3. 0 http: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Protozoa • Wikipedia. "protozoa. " CC BY-SA 3. 0 http: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/protozoa • Wikipedia. "dormant cyst. " CC BY-SA 3. 0 http: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/dormant%20 cyst • Wiktionary. "trophozoite. " CC BY-SA 3. 0 http: //en. wiktionary. org/wiki/trophozoite • Wiktionary. "cyst. " CC BY-SA 3. 0 http: //en. wiktionary. org/wiki/cyst • Wikipedia. "Virulence factor. " CC BY-SA 3. 0 http: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Virulence_factor • Wikipedia. "Pathogenicity island. " CC BY-SA 3. 0 http: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Pathogenicity_island • Wikipedia. "virulence factor. " CC BY-SA 3. 0 http: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/virulence%20 factor • Wikipedia. "pathogenicity island. " CC BY-SA 3. 0 http: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/pathogenicity%20 island Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www. boundless. com

Pathogenicity • Wikibooks. "Structural Biochemistry/Three Domains of Life/Bacteria. " CC BY-SA 3. 0 http:

Pathogenicity • Wikibooks. "Structural Biochemistry/Three Domains of Life/Bacteria. " CC BY-SA 3. 0 http: //en. wikibooks. org/wiki/Structural_Biochemistry/Three_Domains_of_Life/Bacteria%23 Virulence_Factors • Wikipedia. "Secretion. " CC BY-SA 3. 0 http: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Secretion%23 Type_IV_secretion_system_. 28 T 4 SS_or_TFSS. 29 • Wikipedia. "Type three secretion system. " CC BY-SA 3. 0 http: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Type_three_secretion_system • Wikipedia. "Secretion. " CC BY-SA 3. 0 http: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Secretion%23 Type_II_secretion_system_. 28 T 2 SS. 29 • Wikipedia. "Salmonella. " CC BY-SA 3. 0 http: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Salmonella • Wikipedia. "Bacterial conjugation. " CC BY-SA 3. 0 http: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Bacterial_conjugation • Wikipedia. "Helicobacter pylori. " CC BY-SA 3. 0 http: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Helicobacter_pylori • Wikipedia. "bacterial conjugation. " CC BY-SA 3. 0 http: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/bacterial%20 conjugation • Wiktionary. "effector. " CC BY-SA 3. 0 http: //en. wiktionary. org/wiki/effector • Wiktionary. "peptidoglycan. " CC BY-SA 3. 0 http: //en. wiktionary. org/wiki/peptidoglycan • Wikipedia. "Risk of infection. " CC BY-SA 3. 0 http: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Risk_of_infection • Wikipedia. "Infection. " CC BY-SA 3. 0 http: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Infection%23 Colonization • Wikipedia. "Cellulitis. " CC BY-SA 3. 0 http: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Cellulitis%23 Risk_factors • Wikipedia. "Infection. " CC BY-SA 3. 0 http: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Infection%23 Treatment_and_prevention • Wikipedia. "colitis. " CC BY-SA 3. 0 http: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/colitis • Wiktionary. "opportunistic infection. " CC BY-SA 3. 0 http: //en. wiktionary. org/wiki/opportunistic_infection • Wiktionary. "vaccination. " CC BY-SA 3. 0 http: //en. wiktionary. org/wiki/vaccination Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www. boundless. com

Pathogenicity • Wikipedia. "Archaea. " CC BY-SA 3. 0 http: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Archaea%23 Mutualism

Pathogenicity • Wikipedia. "Archaea. " CC BY-SA 3. 0 http: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Archaea%23 Mutualism • Wikipedia. "Microbial cooperation. " CC BY-SA 3. 0 http: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Microbial_cooperation • Wiktionary. "mutualism. " CC BY-SA 3. 0 http: //en. wiktionary. org/wiki/mutualism • Wiktionary. "altruism. " CC BY-SA 3. 0 http: //en. wiktionary. org/wiki/altruism • Wiktionary. "Cooperation. " CC BY-SA 3. 0 http: //en. wiktionary. org/wiki/Cooperation • Wikipedia. "Infectious disease. " CC BY-SA 3. 0 http: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Infectious_disease%23 Transmission • Wiktionary. "pathogen. " CC BY-SA 3. 0 http: //en. wiktionary. org/wiki/pathogen • Wikipedia. "Routes of infection. " CC BY-SA 3. 0 http: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Routes_of_infection%23 Locus • Wiktionary. "contagious. " CC BY-SA 3. 0 http: //en. wiktionary. org/wiki/contagious • Wiktionary. "infectious. " CC BY-SA 3. 0 http: //en. wiktionary. org/wiki/infectious • Wikipedia. "Pathogenic fungi. " CC BY-SA 3. 0 http: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Pathogenic_fungi • Wikipedia. "Fungi. " CC BY-SA 3. 0 http: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Fungi • Wiktionary. "opportunist. " CC BY-SA 3. 0 http: //en. wiktionary. org/wiki/opportunist • Wiktionary. "symbiont. " CC BY-SA 3. 0 http: //en. wiktionary. org/wiki/symbiont • Wiktionary. "mycotoxin. " CC BY-SA 3. 0 http: //en. wiktionary. org/wiki/mycotoxin Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www. boundless. com