Bohr Model of an Atom Electron Charge Neutral

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Bohr Model of an Atom Electron Charge = “Neutral” Mass = 1. 674 x

Bohr Model of an Atom Electron Charge = “Neutral” Mass = 1. 674 x 10 -27 kg - Neutron - Charge = “Positive” Mass = 1. 672 x 10 -27 kg - Proton - + - - Charge = “Negative” Mass = 9. 109 x 10 -31 kg + ++ + + ++

ONE COULOMB of charge (+ or -) Equals 6. 24 x 18 10 charges

ONE COULOMB of charge (+ or -) Equals 6. 24 x 18 10 charges 6, 240, 000, 000 charges The smallest unit of charge is the charge of one electron or proton. e = 1. 60 x -19 10 Coulombs

FORCE is inversely proportional to the square of the distance. F α 1 2

FORCE is inversely proportional to the square of the distance. F α 1 2 R FORCE is directly proportional to the product of the charges. F α q 1· q 2

FORCE is inversely proportional to the square of the distance. Coulomb’s Law F α

FORCE is inversely proportional to the square of the distance. Coulomb’s Law F α 1 2 R q · q 1 2 F α 2 R FORCE is directly proportional to the product of the charges. q 1· q 2 F =k 2 F Rα q 1· q 2 k = 8. 9875 x 109 N·m 2 / C 2 k ~ 9 x 109 N·m 2 / C 2

Find the net force on q 1.

Find the net force on q 1.

Rubber Rod and Fur Glass Rod and Silk Fur - + - + -

Rubber Rod and Fur Glass Rod and Silk Fur - + - + - + + + + + - Rubber + + + + + - Silk - + + - - + Glass Rubber is a better insulator than fur. Silk is a better insulator than glass.

- - - - + + + -+ + - + + Electrical Induction

- - - - + + + -+ + - + + Electrical Induction - - - - -

- - - - + + + -+ + - + + Electrical Induction

- - - - + + + -+ + - + + Electrical Induction - - - - -

-+ + - + + + Electrical Induction + + + + + +

-+ + - + + + Electrical Induction + + + + + + + + +

-+ + - + + + Electrical Induction + + + + + +

-+ + - + + + Electrical Induction + + + + + + + + +

-+ + - + + + Electrical Induction + + + + + +

-+ + - + + + Electrical Induction + + + + + + + + +

-+ + - + + + Electrical Conduction + + + + + +

-+ + - + + + Electrical Conduction + + + + + + + + +

Electrical Conduction + + + +

Electrical Conduction + + + +

- - https: //sciencebasedlife. wordpress. com/2012/02/15/water-droplets-orbit-via-static-electricity-in-space-w-video/

- - https: //sciencebasedlife. wordpress. com/2012/02/15/water-droplets-orbit-via-static-electricity-in-space-w-video/

Distance = 1 R 2 R FORCE = 1 N 1/4 N 3 R

Distance = 1 R 2 R FORCE = 1 N 1/4 N 3 R 4 R 1/9 N 1/16 N - - --- - -- -- - - - - --- - -- - -+ + GRAVITY ELECTROSTATIC FORCE

+ - - -- - -- -- -- - ------- ----- - ---- --

+ - - -- - -- -- -- - ------- ----- - ---- -- --- --- - -- -- - -- - Field lines are in the direction of the force that would be put on a POSITIVE test charge.

ELECTRICAL Potential Energy ELECTRICAL Potential Total amount of energy for EACH coulomb of charge

ELECTRICAL Potential Energy ELECTRICAL Potential Total amount of energy for EACH coulomb of charge (Joules) (Joules/Coulomb) VOLTS

20 J/kg 60 Joules total 10 J/kg 30 Joules total

20 J/kg 60 Joules total 10 J/kg 30 Joules total

Electrical CURRENT The number of electrons that “flow” by a given point each second.

Electrical CURRENT The number of electrons that “flow” by a given point each second. Coulombs Second UNITS? “Amps” 12 Amps = 12 Coulombs per second = 12 · (6. 24 x 1018) electrons per second = 74, 880, 000, 000 electrons second

Voltage = Current · K + + + ++ + + + + ++

Voltage = Current · K + + + ++ + + + + ++ + +

Resistance = UNITS? Voltage Current Joules Coulombs second Joule·Seconds Coulomb 2 Ohms

Resistance = UNITS? Voltage Current Joules Coulombs second Joule·Seconds Coulomb 2 Ohms

1 slope = R

1 slope = R

P=V·I 100 W 120 V 100 W = 0. 83 ? Amps Power =

P=V·I 100 W 120 V 100 W = 0. 83 ? Amps Power = Voltage · Current Watts = Joules Coulomb · Coulomb Second 2 P=I ·R 2 Power = Current · Resistance Watts = Coulombs 2 Second 2 Joule·Second · Coulomb 2

"Resistivity geometry" by User: Omegatron - Created by User: Omegatron using

"Resistivity geometry" by User: Omegatron - Created by User: Omegatron using

Convention: It is convention to give the current the same direction as the flow

Convention: It is convention to give the current the same direction as the flow of positive charge!

Series Circuit RTotal = R 1 + R 2 + R 3 = 60

Series Circuit RTotal = R 1 + R 2 + R 3 = 60 + 40 + 50 60 40 50 = 150 More resistors in series, MORE total resistance Parallel Circuit 1 1 = + + RTotal R 1 R 2 R 3 1 1 = 60 + 40 + 50 RTotal 1 =. 062 RTotal = 16. 2 60 40 50 More resistors in PARALLEL, LESS total resistance

Same Everywhere! Adds up to the Total Same Everywhere!

Same Everywhere! Adds up to the Total Same Everywhere!

2 V 3 V 1 V 6 V 3 V

2 V 3 V 1 V 6 V 3 V

Kirchhoff's Law Pick an arbitrary direction of current. Pick an arbitrary “tracing” direction. I

Kirchhoff's Law Pick an arbitrary direction of current. Pick an arbitrary “tracing” direction. I 2 I 1 I 2 4 V 35 Ω I 2 I 3 1 V 6 V 50 Ω I 1 62 Ω

6. 0 Volts Internal Resistance 5. 0 Volts

6. 0 Volts Internal Resistance 5. 0 Volts