Body Paragraphs Body Paragraphs Purpose The body paragraphs

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Body Paragraphs

Body Paragraphs

Body Paragraphs Purpose The body paragraphs in your essay support the main idea in

Body Paragraphs Purpose The body paragraphs in your essay support the main idea in your thesis statement by breaking it down into smaller ideas or subtopics. Ideas in your paragraphs should relate back to thesis statement. Essay Introduction & Thesis Statement Body Paragraph 3 _______ Body Paragraph 1 Body Paragraph 4 _____________ Body Paragraph 2 Body Paragraph 5 _____________

What is a

What is a

Is this a paragraph? I need a water bottle in case I get thirsty.

Is this a paragraph? I need a water bottle in case I get thirsty. A sweater is useful if it gets cold. A compass will help me go in the right direction. Sandwiches will be an easy-to-carry snack. I can use a camera to take pictures of unusual or attractive places. This is but a list of unrelated sentences.

Paragraph Form Most paragraphs contain between five to ten sentences. The first line of

Paragraph Form Most paragraphs contain between five to ten sentences. The first line of a paragraph is usually indented (begin a few spaces to the right of the margin) to show that there is a new paragraph. indent ___________________________________________.

Is this a paragraph? I need a water bottle in case I get thirsty.

Is this a paragraph? I need a water bottle in case I get thirsty. A sweater is useful if it gets cold. A compass will help me go in the right direction. Sandwiches will be an easyto-carry snack. I can use a camera to take pictures of unusual or attractive places. This is also a list of unrelated sentences. It is mere Nonsense.

A paragraph is a series of sentences developing topic. one

A paragraph is a series of sentences developing topic. one

Can we make it a paragraph? I need a water bottle in case I

Can we make it a paragraph? I need a water bottle in case I get thirsty. A sweater is useful if it gets cold. A compass will help me go in the right direction. Sandwiches will be an easy-to-carry snack. I can use a camera to take pictures of unusual or attractive places. Yes, we can make it a paragraph by stating the central idea of the paragraph in one sentence like “I am preparing for a trip to Mount Tai”, which works miracles for the paragraph.

Key Features A paragraph should contain some of the following features… q A Topic

Key Features A paragraph should contain some of the following features… q A Topic Sentence q Supporting Sentences q A Concluding Sentence q Unity

conclu din senten g ce Through the centuries rats have managed to survive all

conclu din senten g ce Through the centuries rats have managed to survive all our efforts to destroy them. We have poisoned them and trapped them. We have fumigated, flooded, and burned them. We have tried germ warfare. Some rats even survived atomic bomb tests conducted on Entwetok atoll in the Pacific after World War II. In spite of all our efforts, these enemies of ours continue to prove that they are the most indestructible of pests. main idea

Topic Sentences Definition Every paragraph should have a topic sentence. This is the most

Topic Sentences Definition Every paragraph should have a topic sentence. This is the most important sentence because it expresses the main idea of the paragraph.

Example Topic Sentence: states the main idea of the paragraph. Body Paragraph An important

Example Topic Sentence: states the main idea of the paragraph. Body Paragraph An important factor in learning a foreign language has to do with the concept of intrinsic versus extrinsic motivation. When we do something for the “fun of it” or because we enjoy it, that is called intrinsic motivation. Extrinsic motivation, on the other hand, is when we do something for the purpose of receiving some kind of external reward such as money, time off from work, etc. Many education experts believe that intrinsic motivation is more powerful when it comes to helping students retain what they’ve learned. The question and challenge for teachers today is, “How can we help our students become intrinsically motivated in what we are teaching? ”

Topic Sentence Essentials Complete Sentence There are several things you need to remember when

Topic Sentence Essentials Complete Sentence There are several things you need to remember when writing topic sentences. The first is that topic sentences are always complete sentences.

Example Not a complete sentence Strategies of learning English. There are many strategies that

Example Not a complete sentence Strategies of learning English. There are many strategies that you can use to help you learn a new language.

Example Not a complete sentence The Day of the Dead is a special holiday

Example Not a complete sentence The Day of the Dead is a special holiday in Mexico when people can get together to remember deceased loved ones.

Topic Sentence Essentials Two Parts A topic sentence contains the topic of the paragraph

Topic Sentence Essentials Two Parts A topic sentence contains the topic of the paragraph and a controlling idea. The controlling idea limits the topic to something very specific.

Example #2 Topic and Controlling Idea Topic: names the main idea or general subject

Example #2 Topic and Controlling Idea Topic: names the main idea or general subject of the paragraph Topic Sentence One of the most serious problems in today’s inner-city public schools is overcrowded classrooms. Controlling Idea: makes a specific comment about the subject. Tells the reader what the paragraph will say about the main topic.

Example #2 Topic and Controlling Idea Topic: names the main idea or general subject

Example #2 Topic and Controlling Idea Topic: names the main idea or general subject of the paragraph Topic Sentence One of the most serious problems in today’s inner-city public schools is the low percentage of trained teachers. Controlling Idea: makes a specific comment about the subject. Tells the reader what the paragraph will say about the main topic.

Be Careful! Make sure that your topic sentence does not contain too many controlling

Be Careful! Make sure that your topic sentence does not contain too many controlling ideas.

Example There are too many controlling ideas to be covered in one paragraph. A

Example There are too many controlling ideas to be covered in one paragraph. A good topic sentence should be limited to one controlling idea. Topic Sentence The advent of the Internet has benefited society through improved communication, access to information, and streamlined commerce. Topic Sentence The advent of the Internet has benefited society through improved communication. Most topic sentences contain only one controlling idea.

Practice Exercise Write one or two topic sentences about the following topics: 1. Television’s

Practice Exercise Write one or two topic sentences about the following topics: 1. Television’s effects on children *It is bad for children to watch TV. Watching too much TV does harm to children ‘s health. . Watching TV sometimes interferes with children’s school work. 2. Living in a city There a lot of advantages of living in a city. I prefer not to live in a city for three reasons.

Supporting Sentences Definition Every paragraph has sentences that relate to the ideas in the

Supporting Sentences Definition Every paragraph has sentences that relate to the ideas in the topic sentence. These sentences are called supporting sentences. Look at the supporting sentences on the next page to see how the writer provided more information on the subject in the topic sentence.

Supporting Sentences Topic Sentence An important factor in learning a foreign language has to

Supporting Sentences Topic Sentence An important factor in learning a foreign language has to do with the concept of intrinsic versus extrinsic motivation. n When we do something for the “fun of it” or because we enjoy it, that is called intrinsic motivation. n Extrinsic motivation, on the other hand, is when we do something for the purpose of receiving some kind of external reward such as money, time off from work, etc. n Many education experts believe that intrinsic motivation is more powerful when it comes to helping students retain what they’ve learned. Supporting Sentences

Concluding Sentence Definition and Purpose A concluding sentence is the last sentence in a

Concluding Sentence Definition and Purpose A concluding sentence is the last sentence in a paragraph. A conclusion can remind the reader of the main points of a paragraph and/or leave the reader with something to think about in relation to the topic. Look at the next page to see how the writer used a concluding sentence.

Concluding Sentence Body Paragraph An important factor in learning a foreign language has to

Concluding Sentence Body Paragraph An important factor in learning a foreign language has to do with the concept of intrinsic versus extrinsic motivation. When we do something for the “fun of it” or because we enjoy it, that is called intrinsic motivation. Extrinsic motivation, on the other hand, is when we do something for the purpose of receiving some kind of external reward such as money, time off from work, etc. Many education experts believe that intrinsic motivation is more powerful when it comes to helping students retain what they’ve learned. The question and challenge for teachers today is, “How can we help our students become intrinsically motivated in what we are teaching? ” This concluding sentence tries to leave a final thought with the reader by asking a question.

Concluding sentence Gold, a precious metal, is prized for two important characteristics. First of

Concluding sentence Gold, a precious metal, is prized for two important characteristics. First of all, gold has a glowing beauty that is resistant to corrosion. Therefore it is suitable for jewelry, coins, and ornamental purposes. Gold never needs to be polished and will remain beautiful forever. For example, a Macedonian coin remains as untarnished today as the day it was manufactured twenty-three centuries ago. Another important characteristic of gold is its usefulness to industry and science. For many years, it has been used in hundreds of industrial applications. The most recent use of gold is in astronauts’ suits. Astronauts wear gold-plated heat shields for protection outside the spaceship. In conclusion, gold is treasured not only for its beauty but also for its utility. This concluding sentence remind the reader of the main points

Concluding Sentence Useful Expressions It is sometimes helpful to have a concluding expression in

Concluding Sentence Useful Expressions It is sometimes helpful to have a concluding expression in your last sentence to signal the end of your paragraph. Some common expressions used in concluding sentences are listed below. q As we can see, q In short, q In summary, q Consequently, q As a result, q These examples show that…

Practice Exercise Write a concluding sentence for the following paragraph: You can reduce gas

Practice Exercise Write a concluding sentence for the following paragraph: You can reduce gas consumption in your car by careful driving and good maintenance. Don’t speed. Gas consumption is about 10 percent higher at 60 miles per hour than at 50 miles per hour and even greater at higher speeds. Avoid fast stops and starts because they wear your tires out in addition to using a lot of gas. Check your tire pressure often because under-inflated tires reduce gas mileage considerably. Get your car tuned up regularly because an inefficiently operating engine results in inefficient fuel consumption. To conclude, if you keep your car in good condition and drive it carefully, your use of gasoline is sure to decrease.

Unity Definition Good paragraphs have unity. That means that each sentence in the paragraph

Unity Definition Good paragraphs have unity. That means that each sentence in the paragraph is related to the topic sentence. Unified paragraphs also discuss only one main idea.

Unity in a Paragraph Every sentence in a paragraph should support the main idea

Unity in a Paragraph Every sentence in a paragraph should support the main idea expressed in the topic sentence. a e d i n i a m sente ence sent s c n e t en e senten ce nce

Is this a unified paragraph? My father is very strict with his children, especially

Is this a unified paragraph? My father is very strict with his children, especially me. He will not let me out of the house unless I have done all my homework Frankly, I do not care whether I go to school or not. School is such a waste of time. There are not any good jobs, anyway. My mother does not agree with my father. They quarrel a lot. Sometimes I wish they would get a divorce, but then whom would I live with?

This is a unified paragraph My sister Liz was born lucky. She has a

This is a unified paragraph My sister Liz was born lucky. She has a beautiful smile. When she does something bad, she smiles and my parents are not angry. She eats a lot and does not get fat. Her favorite meal is a double cheeseburger with French fries, a milkshake, and an ice cream sundae. After school she does her homework in five minutes while she watches television at the same time. In conclusion, I believe some people are born lucky, but some are not.

Find the sentences that are “off topic” or do not relate to the topic

Find the sentences that are “off topic” or do not relate to the topic sentence. Topic Body Paragraph Sentence One of the recent status symbols for many American business people is the palm pilot. Palm pilots are small electronic devices that help people organize information such as dates for meetings, short notes, and addresses of contacts. Fax machines are also very popular among office workers. With palm pilots, a person can input information at any time and any place. Many business people also have cellular phones so that they can make phone calls from just about anywhere. When a person returns to the office from a business trip, he/she won’t have to spend hours organizing notes or addresses, because the palm pilot already has that information. All that person has to do now is hook up the palm pilot to a personal computer, and voila! All the information from meetings is efficiently organized on the hard drive of the personal computer! These sentences do not relate to the topic sentence in the paragraph. This paragraph does not have unity.

Practice Exercise Locate the irrelevant sentences in the following short paragraphs. 1. My roommate

Practice Exercise Locate the irrelevant sentences in the following short paragraphs. 1. My roommate Tony is very untidy. He has brown hair and blue eyes. He always leaves his laundry on the floor. When he cooks, he never washes the dishes. For a while, he had a bicycle on his bed. It is not surprising that Tony can never find anything. 2. George has not been lucky in school this year. He got sick and missed classes, and could not take his finals. He also lost his books. These were not only textbooks but also his notebooks. Everybody likes George because he will go out of his way to help people.