Boat DIGEST Boat Dismantling Training Unit 2 Boat

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Boat DIGEST Boat Dismantling Training Unit 2 Boat dismantling process Recreational Craft Dismantling and

Boat DIGEST Boat Dismantling Training Unit 2 Boat dismantling process Recreational Craft Dismantling and Recycling Procedures

OBJECTIVE OF THE UNIT This unit is relevant to candidates who are employed in

OBJECTIVE OF THE UNIT This unit is relevant to candidates who are employed in or involved in the Boat Dismantling Industry at a practical level. Candidates who achieve this unit should have the ability to: • Identify and describe stages of boat dismantling procedures and apply the procedures • Prepare a basic boat dismantling plan for safe and environmental friendly recycling • Appropriate handling and safe operation of various tools and equipment used in Boat Dismantling Practices • Define / detect hazardous materials and their possible locations in a boat • Decide a proper way to dispose or recycle boat originated waste

INTRODUCTION

INTRODUCTION

THE REALITY behind End of Life Recreational Craft (ELRC) Recycling activities of RC cannot

THE REALITY behind End of Life Recreational Craft (ELRC) Recycling activities of RC cannot be considered as commercial activity, it is a waste management activity. Boats constructed from steel and aluminum can be dismantled for commercial reasons, however, recycling of most boats, especially those built with thermosetting polymer composite material, is carried out only under environmental concerns and legal requirement. Either way, ELRC are, by EU waste directive definitions, waste, and due to their content of hazardous materials, it is considered Hazardous Waste.

Hazardous Materials Properties of Hazardous Materials A hazardous material is any item or agent

Hazardous Materials Properties of Hazardous Materials A hazardous material is any item or agent (biological, chemical, physical) which has the potential to cause harm to humans, animals, or the environment, either by itself or through interaction with other factors (Institute of Hazardous Materials Management, 2014).

BOAT DISMANTLING PROCESS Watch video 1

BOAT DISMANTLING PROCESS Watch video 1

1. General process. The process of recreational craft recycling is a complex but not

1. General process. The process of recreational craft recycling is a complex but not extremely difficult or dangerous procedure. All steps involved in recycling should be carried out under strict environmental control and with care for safety. Recycling can be done successfully with decent training and basic preparation. The main steps in the process are the following: Step 1 - Administrative work Step 2 - Preparatory Work Step 3 - Degasification and Pre-Decontamination Step 4 - Dismantling Step 5 - Waste management

2. Administrative work (Step 1) This step covers from the initial contact with the

2. Administrative work (Step 1) This step covers from the initial contact with the Boat-owner, Marina, legal owner, etc, to the moment the boat is at the recycling facility. Depending on the owner, the type and size of boat, system of acquisition, the location, condition of the boat, STEP 2 (boat preparation) could be part of this step or not and other steps may vary. 2. 1 - Finding boats There are various ways a boat dismantler gets to receive boats: • Direct contact from owner: Conscious owners, if they have the possibility, they will contact directly the local recycling facility. • Calls from Marinas and private harbors due to abandonment or as an extra service for their clients. • Contacts from administration due to abandonment or seizure: e. i. public call for tenders. Once a boat offer has reached the dismantler, it is time to study if the facility has the capacity to dismantle it and how to make economically profitable to take it. The maximum size of a boat that can be accepted will vary depending on the facility. Before taking boats in, a dismantler will have to be certain both height and length do not exceed transport or yard limitations and should check the type and shape of the boat (fixed centerboards, masts, catamarans width, etc. ). All those are serious issues that can affect greatly the final dismantling cost.

2. Administrative work (Step 1) 2. 2 - Boat transport and environmental certificate In

2. Administrative work (Step 1) 2. 2 - Boat transport and environmental certificate In the EU in general and in many EU Member States (MS), boats to be dismantled are considered as End of Life Vehicles (ELV). Under such concept there is no need to notify the environmental authorities about its movement as it will be seen as "urban waste" and will not be considered as a toxic waste until it reaches the dismantling yard. If the actual MS does not consider the End of Life Boat (ELB) as an ELV, then it must be seen as a toxic waste (according to the waste framework directive 2008/98), and permission for movement should be demanded. If we follow the ELVs legislation, a set of documentation should be required to the owner prior to transportation: - Boat registration number or ID code - Boat documentation or sworn declaration of lost - Owners ID or representatives declaration Transportation is a very big issue. Depending on the boat type and size it can be the most expensive part of the process. Regulations and legislations are different for each country. The route, the maximum heights for bridges and underpasses or width of the road must be taken into account before arranging the transport. Also, if the size is larger than the law limit, extra precautions must be taken during the transport. Each precaution multiplies the cost of transport.

2. Administrative work (Step 1) 2. 2 - Boat transport and environmental certificate (cont.

2. Administrative work (Step 1) 2. 2 - Boat transport and environmental certificate (cont. ) Before transportation, the boat should be surveyed carefully. Dangerous and hazardous materials on the boat, especially in the tanks should be identified. If there is a flammable liquid in the tank and the legislation in the country allows it, the liquid should be removed from the tank. But if the legislation does not allow treating the waste in the tank anywhere but the facility, transportation process should be done with extra precautions. Sometimes there might be a part or equipment of the boat that may be a hazard during transportation, such as the mast of the boat. In this case, the part should be removed or cut before starting the movement. If the boat is lifted on the truck with a crane, the recycler should ensure the boat is safely fixed with ropes and straps. During the lifting operation workers should not be around or under the boat. After the boat is lifted on the truck, it should be fixed again to the truck to ensure safe transport.

2. Administrative work (Step 1) Once the boat is safely on site, all documentation

2. Administrative work (Step 1) Once the boat is safely on site, all documentation should be revised and once payment has been done, a certificate should be handled in to certify the boat has gone into an authorized recycling yard. This way the owner has no responsibility from now on (with cars there is a specific official destruction certificate, with other vehicles the document is an internal document signed by the dismantling companies called the environmental certificate). CONTACT YOUR LOCAL ENVIRONMENTAL AGENCY TO KNOW YOUR SPECIFIC LOCAL AND NATIONAL PRECEDURES

3. Preparatory Works (Step 2) This step will cover from the arrival of the

3. Preparatory Works (Step 2) This step will cover from the arrival of the boat and lifting onto the dismantling area to the moment operations are ready to start. Boat preparation is a part of the process mostly related to medium to large craft as these boats have many risk issues to address. Meanwhile small craft are so simple that makes it unnecessary to develop an inventory and prepare a dismantling plan.

3. Preparatory Works (Step 2) 3. 1 - Pre-arrival arrangements Includes any specific preparatory

3. Preparatory Works (Step 2) 3. 1 - Pre-arrival arrangements Includes any specific preparatory work that should be carried out before the boat arrives, such as needs for pre-identified potential hazards, for health or environment. The Boat Recycling Facility should plan appropriately for the boat's arrival. Should arrange the location where the boat will be placed during recycling operations, plan for the arrival and safe placement of the specific boat to be recycled and set all necessary equipment a tools that will be used. 3. 2 - Arrival of boat Procedures that the Boat Recycling Facility will follow: -conduct a walk-through (on-board check) of the craft in an effort to identify any potential environmental or safety issues. -verify whether safe access and egress has been provided for. It is recommended to mark the location of detected Hazards. Any specific items or locations on board whose hazardous characteristics are uncertain should be marked for additional sampling as necessary.

3. Preparatory Works (Step 2) 3. 3 - Inventory of Hazardous Materials (IHM) &

3. Preparatory Works (Step 2) 3. 3 - Inventory of Hazardous Materials (IHM) & Inventory of Equipment & Materials (IEM) The Preparation of the IHM and IEM, even if it is presented by the owner, should be done on-site as full knowledge & understanding of the boat will mean for the installation a great increase of the degree of occupational and environmental safety and will help greatly reducing costs and increasing benefits. The IHM is the basis for identifying the special needs for the recycling facility, special conditions for the workers and planning the recycling process and the identification of the specific practical and legal requirements applicable to the boat and its materials. The complete identification of the materials contains the following tasks, although not all will apply as that will vary with the Boat type: • Check the available documentation and Boat plans for the preparation of the inspection, sampling* plan and control. • *Onboard inspections and sampling of hazardous materials where documentation is insufficient or, according to findings, there is a need of extra information. • *Sample analysis and preparation of documentation • On-board equipment listing. • Preparation of IHM/IEM and the detailed report according to the specific requirements *Only Large Boats

3. Preparatory Works (Step 2) 3. 4 - Arrangements for correct Management of Waste

3. Preparatory Works (Step 2) 3. 4 - Arrangements for correct Management of Waste and Hazardous Materials With the IHM defined, the recycler should decide how the type and amount of Hazardous Materials detected will be managed, as required by the regulations on waste, and specify the facility's approach for handling and storing each Hazardous Material. If boat-specific conditions require deviation from normal practices for managing Hazardous Materials, the appropriate boat-specific measures should be set. In order to avoid confusion, same nomenclature and identification scheme as those included in the IHM should be used in recipients. The removal of Hazardous Materials should be undertaken by responsible personnel who are trained and authorized to do so.

3. Preparatory Works (Step 2) 3. 5 - Boat Recycling Plan (BRP) After the

3. Preparatory Works (Step 2) 3. 5 - Boat Recycling Plan (BRP) After the preparation of the IHM/IEM, we will have defined the types and quantities of hazardous materials to be considered for planning and conducting a safe and environmentally sound recycling. This knowledge is used to define the requirements that must be met by the recycling facility and its combination with the applicable methods. The document where this points are defined is called the Boat Recycling Plan. It is not a mandatory document, but will help the dismantler throughout the process. What is a BRP? The BRP describes how the Boat Recycling Facility will recycle the specific boat in a safe and environmentally sound manner, covering the recycling process steps and their sequence over the entire process. The Boat Recycling Plan contains a detailed description of how the boat will be prepared, especially the removal of hazardous materials before cutting, the cutting sequence, segregation, storage, transportation and disposal / recycling of residues/materials, the process of Information and materials/residues management.

3. Preparatory Works (Step 2) 3. 5 - Boat Recycling Plan (BRP) Who has

3. Preparatory Works (Step 2) 3. 5 - Boat Recycling Plan (BRP) Who has to develop a Boat Recycling Plan (BRP)? The responsibility for developing a comprehensive BRP rests with the Boat Recycling Facility, although development of the BRP is a cooperative effort between the Boat Recycling Facility and the owner. The Boat Recycling Facility is best placed to understand describe the methods and procedures that it uses in its recycling operations and it has knowledge of the available facilities and capabilities for the safe and environmentally sound management of all Hazardous Materials and wastes generated during recycling, of the skills and capabilities of its workforce and the availability of local support services, and of the relevant national laws and regulations that apply to the facility and its activities, including the activities which it is approved to perform. THE BRP IS BASED ON WORKER SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

3. Preparatory Works (Step 2) 3. 5. 1. Boat Recycling Plan (BRP) – Worker

3. Preparatory Works (Step 2) 3. 5. 1. Boat Recycling Plan (BRP) – Worker safety In relation to the safety and health of workers, the main points to consider are: • Key personnel with regards to safety and health • Evaluation of workplace hazards • Prevention of adverse health effects in humans: -Procedures for safe conditions for entry -Procedures for safe work (example: hot cutting or pressure vessels) -Prevention of falls from heights -Apparatus and equipment for rigging and materials handling -Cleaning and general order and lighting -Preparedness and response plan for emergencies -Prevention, detection of fire and explosions

3. Preparatory Works (Step 2) 3. 5. 2. Boat Recycling Plan (BRP) – Environmental

3. Preparatory Works (Step 2) 3. 5. 2. Boat Recycling Plan (BRP) – Environmental Compliance The main points to consider regarding environmental monitoring are: • Management of Hazardous Materials (Samples analyzed in IHM and further if they were not accurate) -Asbestos and asbestos-containing materials -PCBs and PCB-containing materials -Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer -Paints and Coatings -Hazardous waste and sediments (example: oils or bilge water and ballast) -Heavy metals (lead, mercury, cadmium and hexavalent chromium ) -Other Liquids found on board -other Hazardous Materials • Identification, marking, labeling and possible locations on board • Safe removal processes • Storage and labeling after removal • Treatment, transport and disposal • Prevention against harm to the environment • Spill control and prevention and corrective measures • Prevention of pollution from storm water/lixiviates • Prevention and control of the remains • Procedures for reporting incidents and spills

3. Preparatory Works (Step 2) 3. 5. 3. Boat Recycling Plan (BRP) – Final

3. Preparatory Works (Step 2) 3. 5. 3. Boat Recycling Plan (BRP) – Final Stages Safe-for-entry and Safe-for-hot-work procedures The BRP should describe in detail how Safe-for-entry and Safe-for-hot-work procedures will be implemented on the specific boat, taking account of such features as its structure, configuration, etc. The Boat Recycling Facility is encouraged to review legal H&S Guidelines, an search specific technical recommendations to address these important safety issues. Dismantling sequence The BRP should include a dismantling sequence that is boat-specific and takes into account the cutting operations and locations of Hazardous Materials. An important component of the dismantling sequence is the removal of Hazardous Materials to the maximum extent practicable prior to and during cutting activities. Depending on a number of factors, including the age of the boat and the quantity of Hazardous Materials present, it may be impossible to remove all Hazardous Materials prior to the start of cutting activities. Other necessary elements In addition to the elements described above, the BRP should include any boat specific processes and/or procedures that will be necessary to recycle the boat. For example, a Boat Recycling Facility may need to use additional workers or subcontractors, or they may need additional equipment to deal with unique aspects of the craft.

4. Degasification and Pre-Decontamination (Step 3) The first part on the recycling of a

4. Degasification and Pre-Decontamination (Step 3) The first part on the recycling of a boat after arrival are operations for the removal of visible residues within easy reach; This can be done meanwhile IHM/IEM is in progress. The different substances and hazardous materials in the inventory on board are in most cases contained or incorporated into components, equipment and appliances, and only during the dismantling process become specific residues; decontamination requires drainage systems (mobile or fix) to redirect the fuel, water, oils, etc. , for storage and further processing. This part follows these steps but not in all boats and not linearly: • Decontamination planning & Installation of safety systems for workers and environment. • Closure of electrical circuits, pneumatic, hydraulic, extraction of batteries, etc. • Decontamination of Gases - Opening of ventilation paths (if necessary) • Extraction of detachable / accessible waste /materials • Extraction of not common / rare residues/materials. • Removal and Storage of Gasoline (ATEX) • Removal and Storage of Diesel • Removal and storage of waste oils, sludge and oily water • Tank cleaning and degassing (large BOATs with permanent tanks). • Removal and primary Storage of other fluids. • Elimination of common hazardous waste.

5. Dismantling Works (Step 4) The process of dismantling will vary from type to

5. Dismantling Works (Step 4) The process of dismantling will vary from type to type of boat, will depend on its size and mostly will change from one yard to another depending on the tools and equipment available. Torches for metal boats, mobile shears, hydraulic shears, blade saws, circular saws, smashing grabs, etc. , are some of the tools that can be found in different yards. The process that follows could be applied with any tool and dismantling method. Watch video 5

5. Dismantling Works (Step 4) 5. 1 - Cutting In medium to large Boats

5. Dismantling Works (Step 4) 5. 1 - Cutting In medium to large Boats the dismantling sequence usually starts from the top of the structure and continues towards the keel. Side openings for access to the interior of the boat will be done for ventilation and to continue with the work of extraction of materials, equipment or waste. In smaller Boats the dismantling work may be done directly from bow to stern or the other way round, even start right through the middle. The general process is as follows: • General cleaning of the boat, clearing screens and other reusable equipment with easy access and removal and cutting of upper deck structures. Every element protruding, wiring, hydraulic lines, winches, masts, etc. will be removed. • Isolation of potentially hazardous areas still contaminated and selection of the cutting area (only larger Boats). • Study working conditions in the work area (ex. gases for hot work in metal boats, strength for sawing in wooden or fiber boats). • Ensure safety of work in the cutting zone. • Remove equipment and easily accessible waste and indicate cutting section. • Anchoring and mechanical fixings of heavy materials to be extracted. • Cut of structure decks, hatches and constitutional strakes down to machinery room (large boats only). • Full Cutting.

5. Dismantling Works (Step 4) Before starting each zone, checking that there are no

5. Dismantling Works (Step 4) Before starting each zone, checking that there are no concentrations of gases and removing of waste and items which could not be removed in the predecontamination phase must be done, and ventilation hatches should be opened if necessary.

5. Dismantling Works (Step 4) 5. 2 - Removing heavy equipment Once you reach

5. Dismantling Works (Step 4) 5. 2 - Removing heavy equipment Once you reach the machine room, it is carefully opened to expose the equipment without damaging it. After complete removal of potential toxic liquids remaining in this room, the area will be reviewed for the removal of auxiliary and main engines and all kinds of machinery within the room. Remember to disconnect terminals, pipes, wiring and mechanical connections and always pay special attention to the anchoring and fixing of equipment prior to removing it.

6. Waste Management (Step 5) TOXIC LIQUID WASTE REMOVAL - Fuel (diesel/gas-oil/gasoline - Engine

6. Waste Management (Step 5) TOXIC LIQUID WASTE REMOVAL - Fuel (diesel/gas-oil/gasoline - Engine Oil/Hydraulic oil/grease - A/C liquids - Anti-freeze/coolant - Ballast waters - Bilge waters - Other liquids OIL INDUSTRY CHEMICAL INDUSTRY INCINERATION WATER TREATMENT USED PARTS DEALERS OTHER TOXIC WASTE REMOVAL - Batteries - Catalytic converters, filters - Flares/explosives - Contaminated packaging - Organic waste - Other wastes OIL INDUSTRY ENERGY RECOVERY LANDFILLING SPECIFIC RECYCLING INDUSTRIES USED PARTS DEALERS Watch video 2 BODY DISMANTLING - Spare-parts - Plastics, Glass, wood/timber - Rubber/tyres - Non-ferrous metals (aluminum, cooper from cables, stainless steel, bronze. . . ) - Ferrous metals - Composites - Other materials RECYCLING INDUSTRIES Plastic industry Scrap Metal Industry Glass Industry Wood, rubber, etc LANDFILLING ENERGY RECOVERY

6. Waste Management (Step 5) This part of the process refers to the treatment

6. Waste Management (Step 5) This part of the process refers to the treatment of waste removed in the previous steps. These processes consist of several stages according to the residue to be treated specifically. SOLIDS • Organics, paper, carton, etc: similar to household or office waste. • Wood, Glass, Plastic, etc: recyclable material should be segregated and sent to specific recyclers. • WEEE: Electronic equipment can add an extra value to the boat dismantling process. Re-use of equipment or selling for recycling and metal recovery. • Fiberglass/composites: The solution for fiberglass will vary from country to country and region to region. The cost of land filling and the availability of a recycling plant nearby will direct the decision taken. Either way, it must be treated correctly. • Metals: steel, stainless steel, aluminum, cooper, brass, etc. There are many different metals that can be found on board a boat. All of them have a high value in the metal market. Cooper cables are the most commonly found. Cable burning to separate the plastic is totally forbidden, but there are other means to do such job as peelers or shredders. If volumes are high, on-site treatment will bring high revenue. • Others

6. Waste Management (Step 5)

6. Waste Management (Step 5)

6. Waste Management (Step 5) LIQUIDS • Oily water and sludge: oil separators should

6. Waste Management (Step 5) LIQUIDS • Oily water and sludge: oil separators should be in place and treated non-salty water should go into sewage system. Salty water must NEVER go into the sewage system. If on-site treatment then it should be sent to the sea, otherwise it should be sent to a management facility. • Run-off and lixiviate: oil, metals and other wastes may run off with lixiviates. Oils separator, particle filtration and sewage system are in order. • Fuels, diesels, gasoline: Boats may use gasoline so the ATEX legislation should be in place. All fuels, filtered, could be of internal use. • Used oils: The small volumes produced make it unnecessary for an internal treatment system, but proper management should be done. • Clean oils: large Boats may have oil tanks, but rarely. This oil can be directly sold as treated oil for combustion. • Others: all waste liquids found on board should be managed correctly and sent to their specific waste management company (pay main attention to biological contamination – ei: Dreissena polymorpha).

6. Waste Management (Step 5) Once the work is over, all wastes generated should

6. Waste Management (Step 5) Once the work is over, all wastes generated should be managed correctly and the Environmental Agency should be informed accordingly to the local legislations (e. i. waste follow-up documents, annual declarations, etc)

CONCLUSION

CONCLUSION

Boat dismantling is a complex but straight forward process, which includes several steps with

Boat dismantling is a complex but straight forward process, which includes several steps with different activities and each of these with different costs and needs. Each step can have modifications and adaptations according to the type and size of the recreational craft or the capacity of the recycling facility.

As in any process, each step implies a series of functions: A. Planning: Involves

As in any process, each step implies a series of functions: A. Planning: Involves determining the objectives of each step for the organization and the means to achieve them: I. Establish the general course that the organization will follow, by doing a previous study of the Boat (BRP) II. Identify and commit the resources that the organization needs to achieve its objectives, and III. Deciding which tasks should be played to reach those objectives. B. Organization: Which is the process of deciding where decisions will be taken and who will perform which tasks. Qualified personnel should coordinate and define each step, the personnel involved, materials used and others issues. C. Direction: Management staff should provide leadership to implement all that is planned, motivating staff intending to perform the necessary steps to achieve the goals of the organization. D. Control: To monitor and verify the performance of executions and corrective actions at each step. These phases serve for the improvement of each step and the whole process, giving feedback for future executions of future Boats to scrap, for greater safety and efficiency, which will allow us to save hours of work, reduce costs of machinery and hence get higher profits and competitiveness.