BNL FNAL LBNL SLAC LARP DOE Review July

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BNL -FNAL - LBNL - SLAC LARP DOE Review July 15 - 116, 2010

BNL -FNAL - LBNL - SLAC LARP DOE Review July 15 - 116, 2010 FNAL Conductor and Cable Arup K. Ghosh (BNL) Dan Dietderich (LBNL) Emanuela Barzi (FNAL) LARP DOE Review July 15 -16, 2010 Conductor and Cable - A. Ghosh 1

Outline 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Introduction RRP 108/127 Strand

Outline 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Introduction RRP 108/127 Strand OST strand production Cable Production and R&D 1. LQ and HQ Cable 2. Cored-Cable R&D Electro-mechanical studies – NIST Production Plan for FY 09 and FY 10 1. Inventory of strand Conductor Qualification Other R&D Issues Summary LARP DOE Review July 15 -16, 2010 Conductor and Cable - A. Ghosh 2

1. Introduction d • The first long quad-magnet LQS 01 use RRP - 0.

1. Introduction d • The first long quad-magnet LQS 01 use RRP - 0. 7 mm strand • 27 -strand cable with 1. 0 o keystone angle • Strand is of the 54/61 design with d ~ 70 mm and Jc >2400 A/mm 2 at 12 T Tc =Transition Temp. Flux-jump instability at low field LARP DOE Review July 15 -16, 2010 Conductor and Cable - A. Ghosh Tbath= Bath Temp 3

Stability can be improved by reducing filament diameter, d – Smaller sub-elements can minimize

Stability can be improved by reducing filament diameter, d – Smaller sub-elements can minimize flux jumps and improve stability. – Main driver has been DOE- HEP Conductor Development Program (CDP) – And FNAL R&D Program 70 mm 35 mm Smaller Filament Size LARP DOE Review July 15 -16, 2010 Conductor and Cable - A. Ghosh 4

2. Qualification of 108/127 -design strand • In FY 08 OST delivered 180 kg

2. Qualification of 108/127 -design strand • In FY 08 OST delivered 180 kg of high-Jc strand with the 127 -stack design and larger spacing between subelements Cu fraction is 53% compared 47% in standard 54/61 127 • This production went well – good piece lengths • Ic measurements of extracted strands from TQ cable (B 0982 R) using 108/127 0. 7 mm strand show • Very low Ic degradation and Is > 1200 A • Wind-react four TQ coils TQS 03 • TQS 03 magnet tested at CERN • Good performance at 4. 2 K and at 1. 9 K • Extracted strands from HQ 15 mm wide cable with 0. 75° keystone and using 0. 8 mm strand Ø Low cabling degradation. FNAL “core-program” : TQM 03 mirror magnet test using 108/127 strand cable fabricated at FNAL Good performance at 4. 2 K and at 1. 9 K LARP DOE Review July 15 -16, 2010 Conductor and Cable - A. Ghosh 5

TQS 03 a Quench History Caspi-LBNL 1. 9 K 4. 4 K LARP DOE

TQS 03 a Quench History Caspi-LBNL 1. 9 K 4. 4 K LARP DOE Review July 15 -16, 2010 Conductor and Cable - A. Ghosh 6

TQM 03 Quench History R. Bossert FNAL LARP DOE Review July 15 -16, 2010

TQM 03 Quench History R. Bossert FNAL LARP DOE Review July 15 -16, 2010 Conductor and Cable - A. Ghosh 7

Nb 3 Sn HQ-Strand Specification LARP-MAG-M-8002 Rev-D “New Baseline Strand” RRP 108/127 with increased

Nb 3 Sn HQ-Strand Specification LARP-MAG-M-8002 Rev-D “New Baseline Strand” RRP 108/127 with increased Copper 127 LARP DOE Review July 15 -16, 2010 Conductor and Cable - A. Ghosh 8

3. RRP 108/127 Production at OST 8 billets • 245 kg of wire produced

3. RRP 108/127 Production at OST 8 billets • 245 kg of wire produced so far from 8 billets, single billet yield is ~ 35 kg (~7. 5 km) • 85 % in lengths >1 Km, 43% in lengths >3 km, 26% >5 km LARP DOE Review July 15 -16, 2010 Conductor and Cable - A. Ghosh 9

4. Cable Production and R&D at LBNL LQ Specifications: Same as TQ Cable Specifications

4. Cable Production and R&D at LBNL LQ Specifications: Same as TQ Cable Specifications • • LQ- Cable unit length (UL) is 240 m 15 unit lengths of LQ cable made using 54/61 2 unit length of LQ using 108/127 Jc-degradation due to cabling, typical is ~ 5% Cable production at LBNL is quite stable LARP DOE Review July 15 -16, 2010 Conductor and Cable - A. Ghosh 10

HQ cable development • Cabling was done using several lots of RRP 0. 8

HQ cable development • Cabling was done using several lots of RRP 0. 8 mm wire • 986 and 987 used 54/61 with standard Cu-spacing • 991 used 108/127 with increased Cu-spacing • 992 used 54/61 with increased Cu-spacing 0% 6% 17% LARP DOE Review July 15 -16, 2010 2% • Cabling degradation sensitive to cable width • Mechanical stability sensitive to cable midthickness Conductor and Cable - A. Ghosh 11

HQ Cable Parameters Strand Diameter 0. 8 mm No. Strands 35 Thickness 1. 44

HQ Cable Parameters Strand Diameter 0. 8 mm No. Strands 35 Thickness 1. 44 mm Width 15. 15 mm Keystone angle 0. 75 o • 5 unit lengths of HQ cable made from 54/61 strand • 5 unit lengths made from 108/127 strand 210 C/72 h + 400 C/48 h + 665 C/72 h Jc(12 T) > 2900 A/mm 2 RRR>100 LARP DOE Review July 15 -16, 2010 Conductor and Cable - A. Ghosh 12

Eddy-Current Coupling in Rutherford cables B Field transverse coupling via crossover resistance RC adjacent

Eddy-Current Coupling in Rutherford cables B Field transverse coupling via crossover resistance RC adjacent resistance RA Ra Field transverse coupling via adjacent resistance RA Rc Field parallel coupling via adjacent resistance RA B B LARP DOE Review July 15 -16, 2010 Conductor and Cable - A. Ghosh 13

Eddy current Magnetization in a Rutherford Cable coupling via RC in transverse field N=Number

Eddy current Magnetization in a Rutherford Cable coupling via RC in transverse field N=Number of strands Cable coupling via Ra in transverse field p =Lay-Pitch c =cable width b = cable thickness Cable coupling via Ra in parallel field LARP DOE Review July 15 -16, 2010 Conductor and Cable - A. Ghosh 14

Suppression of Eddy-Current Magnetization and Losses by increasing RC • In a typical cable

Suppression of Eddy-Current Magnetization and Losses by increasing RC • In a typical cable RC ~ RA • In Nb 3 Sn cables these resistances are very low as the copper sinters during the reaction • Reduce Rc Loss Ø By using a Resistive core • Maintain RA for adequate Current Sharing LARP DOE Review July 15 -16, 2010 Conductor and Cable - A. Ghosh 15

Standard 2 Pass LARP Cable Fabrication Procedure • 1 st Pass – Fabricate cable

Standard 2 Pass LARP Cable Fabrication Procedure • 1 st Pass – Fabricate cable slightly over size by 50 -100 microns – Stop run at 5 m and inspect cable • Inspect cross-sectional images for strand deformation • Measure facet size at the edge of the cable and correlate it to the cable pitch length. • Anneal at 200 C/4 hrs • Softens Cu and cable contracts by ~0. 25% in length • In addition the width and thickness of the cable increases 2 nd Pass – Re-roll cable to the nominal thickness: LQ ~ 1. 26 mm, HQ ~ 1. 44 mm • Compacts cable making it more mechanically stable for coil winding – Stop run at 5 m and inspect cable – Check facet size • LARP DOE Review July 15 -16, 2010 Conductor and Cable - A. Ghosh 16

Cable Edge Facets LARP DOE Review July 15 -16, 2010 Conductor and Cable -

Cable Edge Facets LARP DOE Review July 15 -16, 2010 Conductor and Cable - A. Ghosh 17

15 mm wide HQ-Cables with Cores. Development at LBNL • Stainless Steel Core –

15 mm wide HQ-Cables with Cores. Development at LBNL • Stainless Steel Core – Can not anneal and re-roll cable – Need to anneal strand • LBNL has recently made a HQ cable in one pass using annealed strand – Coil winding issues? • Other Core Material experiments for annealed cables – Mg. O paper tape – S-glass woven tape LARP DOE Review July 15 -16, 2010 Conductor and Cable - A. Ghosh Mandrel with slot 18

Cored-Cable development at FNAL Coils #34 and 35 in TQM structure Coil #35: •

Cored-Cable development at FNAL Coils #34 and 35 in TQM structure Coil #35: • Coil: standard TQ coil • Strand: RRP 108/127 • Cable: TQ with 25 mcm SS core • Cable insulation: S 2 -glass sleeve Coil #34: • Coil: standard TQ coil • Strand: RRP 108/127 • Cable: regular TQ without SS core • Cable insulation: E-glass tape LARP DOE Review July 15 -16, 2010 Conductor and Cable - A. Ghosh 19

TQM 04 test results 14000 Current (A) 12000 10000 TQM 03 a 4. 5

TQM 04 test results 14000 Current (A) 12000 10000 TQM 03 a 4. 5 K 8000 TQM 04 a 4. 5 K 6000 0 100 200 300 400 d. I/dt (A/s) Ramp rate dependence at 4. 5 K: • TQM 03 a – coil#34 w/o core • TQM 04 a – coil#35 with SS core LARP DOE Review July 15 -16, 2010 Conductor and Cable - A. Ghosh 20

5. Electro-mechanical Measurements of 0. 7 mm RRP strand Collaboration with NIST Najib Cheggour

5. Electro-mechanical Measurements of 0. 7 mm RRP strand Collaboration with NIST Najib Cheggour LARP DOE Review July 15 -16, 2010 Conductor and Cable - A. Ghosh 21

In tension, irreversible damage for 54/61 sets in at a strain just above emax.

In tension, irreversible damage for 54/61 sets in at a strain just above emax. Loading Sample Unloading ELECTROMAGNETICS DIVISION B O U L D E R, Conductor C O L O Rand A DCable O LARP DOE Review July 15 -16, 2010 - A. Ghosh 22

Ta- Ternary vs. Ti-Ternary • Ta-doped RRP-54/61 Nb-7. 5 wt%Ta-Sn Ø (Nb-4. 0 a%Ta)3

Ta- Ternary vs. Ti-Ternary • Ta-doped RRP-54/61 Nb-7. 5 wt%Ta-Sn Ø (Nb-4. 0 a%Ta)3 Sn • Compare with Ti-doped RRP-54/61 (Nb-2. 0 a%Ti)3 Sn (Ti introduced by distributed Nb-47 Ti rods in the Nb. Cu matrix) LARP DOE Review July 15 -16, 2010 Conductor and Cable - A. Ghosh 23

Ti-Ternary vs. Ta-Ternary Ti-doped Nb 3 Sn wire more strain tolerant than Ta-doped Influence

Ti-Ternary vs. Ta-Ternary Ti-doped Nb 3 Sn wire more strain tolerant than Ta-doped Influence of Ta and Ti doping on the irreversible strain limit of ternary Nb 3 Sn superconducting wires made with restacked-rod process* N. Cheggour, L. F. Goodrich, T. C. Stauffer , J. D. Splett , and X. F. Lu, A. K. Ghosh, G. Ambrosio Supercond. Sci. and Tech. , 20, (2010) LARP DOE Review July 15 -16, 2010 Conductor and Cable - A. Ghosh 24

6. Procurement – Planning for Long HQ Strand Lead time is 12 -15 months

6. Procurement – Planning for Long HQ Strand Lead time is 12 -15 months LARP 1360 kg FY 08 180 kg 108/127 FY 09 224 kg 108/127 FY 10 300 kg 108/127 FY 11 300 kg 108/127 Additional 395 kg LARP DOE Review July 15 -16, 2010 Conductor and Cable - A. Ghosh 25

Conductor Inventory Status In-stock • 78 kg of 54/61 - 0. 7 mm •

Conductor Inventory Status In-stock • 78 kg of 54/61 - 0. 7 mm • 54 kg of 108/127 – 0. 8 mm for HQ Future Delivery of RRP 108/127 • 68 kg in Aug’ 10 • 67 kg in Dec’ 10 430 kg • 180 kg in Feb’ 11 • 115 kg in Mar’ 11 Planned Delivery • 125 kg in June’ 11 • 265 kg in Aug’ 11 • 300 kg in Dec’ 11 LARP DOE Review July 15 -16, 2010 695 kg Conductor and Cable - A. Ghosh 26

7. Conductor Qualification -1 Billets from OST Ic Test @OST Delivered to LARP HQ-cable

7. Conductor Qualification -1 Billets from OST Ic Test @OST Delivered to LARP HQ-cable fabrication Cable Qualification Billet Qualification Coil Winding & HT Magnet Fabrication HT Witness Sample Test Magnet Test LARP DOE Review July 15 -16, 2010 Conductor and Cable - A. Ghosh 27

Conductor Qualification -2 • Billet Qualification – Rely on OST data – Meets minimum

Conductor Qualification -2 • Billet Qualification – Rely on OST data – Meets minimum performance specification – Low field stability current Is not measured. • Cable Qualification – This is important and needs to be completed prior to coil winding. – Minimum 3 extracted strand one round wire – HT as specified for coil reaction – For most of the LQ cables, LARP followed a formal procedure to qualify the cable prior to use • Cable acceptance document – More recently, wire testing was limited to witness samples and testing at 1. 9 K. – HQ cables were checked during the development phase and for the first few cable runs. LARP DOE Review July 15 -16, 2010 Conductor and Cable - A. Ghosh 28

8. R&D to address stress-strain and stability issues for cable conductors in magnets •

8. R&D to address stress-strain and stability issues for cable conductors in magnets • Cable tests – Effect of transverse pressure on Ic • What is the tolerance of the cable in the magnet ? • First series of tests done in May ‘ 09 (NHMFL, LBNL: A. Godeke and D. Dietderich – Commissioned 25 KA low noise SC-Transformer – Active strain gauge measurement – Test was limited by cable damage probably during assembly – Strand/Cable stability at 4. 2 K and 1. 9 K (FNAL: G. Ambrosio, CERN: B. Bordini) • Bridging the understanding from strand to impregnated cable to magnet performance • Cable Samples were reacted with LQ-Coil 8, assembled in test fixture and tested at FRESCA facility (CERN) Sep’ 09 • A fit of the cable test results at 4. 3 and 1. 9 K done by parameterization of extracted-strand data and allowing a different strain in the cable. The best fit was obtained by using an additional -0. 085% strain in the cables compared to strands LARP DOE Review July 15 -16, 2010 Conductor and Cable - A. Ghosh 29

SSL at 4. 33 K = 13880 A 13433 A assuming the same add.

SSL at 4. 33 K = 13880 A 13433 A assuming the same add. strain of the cable -3% per -0. 085% strain (sensitivity) LARP DOE Review July 15 -16, 2010 LARP CM 13 – Port Jefferson – Nov. 4 -6, 2009 Conductor and Cable - A. Ghosh G. Ambrosio – CERN Cable Test 30 30

Summary • LARP funded: Focused on strand procurement, cable production, strand cable qualification, coil

Summary • LARP funded: Focused on strand procurement, cable production, strand cable qualification, coil reaction schedules, strand witness sample testing at 4. 2 and 1. 9 K • The 108/127 -stack design has matured significantly at OST so that it is considered a “production” wire • CDP and core program funded: R&D towards developing the “next generation” conductor – Ti-Ternary 108/127 – 217 stack design • Conductor issues requiring more R&D is in – Transverse stress effects in cables – Instability in superfluid helium – Ti-Ternary versus Ta-Ternary • Strand Inventory is being replenished for the longer HQ magnet program LARP DOE Review July 15 -16, 2010 Conductor and Cable - A. Ghosh 31

End of Presentation LARP DOE Review July 15 -16, 2010 Conductor and Cable -

End of Presentation LARP DOE Review July 15 -16, 2010 Conductor and Cable - A. Ghosh 32

Additional Slides 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Strand inventory and usage Cable Test at

Additional Slides 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Strand inventory and usage Cable Test at CERN Nomenclature Magnetization of 54/61 and 108/127 Low-field Instability LARP DOE Review July 15 -16, 2010 Conductor and Cable - A. Ghosh 33

Strand inventory and usage HQ- C 11, C 12 and C 13 uses annealed

Strand inventory and usage HQ- C 11, C 12 and C 13 uses annealed 54/61 wire. C 13 with SS-core HQ- C 14 uses CDP wire Ti-doped LARP DOE Review July 15 -16, 2010 Conductor and Cable - A. Ghosh 34

Coil #08 Cable Sample “ 4 -FRESCA-FNAL-RRP 54/61 -0909”: Cables: 27 strands Keystoned Strand

Coil #08 Cable Sample “ 4 -FRESCA-FNAL-RRP 54/61 -0909”: Cables: 27 strands Keystoned Strand diameter: 0. 7 +/- 0. 002 mm Strand: Nb 3 Sn RRP 54/61 made by OST (billet: 9560) width: (bare cable) 10. 077 +0. 000 -0. 100 mm mid thickness: (bare cable) 1. 26 +/- 0. 010 mm keystone angle: 1. 0 +/- 0. 01 deg. Sample length: 1725 mm (splices included) Cable spool: 983 R (used for LQ coil #08) LQ HT (cables reacted with LQ coil #08) Insulation: S 2 -sleeve (0. 1 mm thick) with palmitic acid Expected Ic: 16041 A @ 11. 41 T (9. 6 T FRESCA + 1. 81 T self-field) 4. 33 K Prestress: 40 MPa @ 300 K (3000 Kg per bolt) 0. 5 mm Kapton added after impregnation LARP DOE Review July 15 -16, 2010 LARP CM 13 – Port Jefferson – Nov. 4 -6, 2009 Conductor and Cable - A. Ghosh G. Ambrosio – CERN Cable Test 35 35

PS limit = 32 k. A LARP DOE Review July 15 -16, 2010 Conductor

PS limit = 32 k. A LARP DOE Review July 15 -16, 2010 Conductor and Cable - A. Ghosh 36

Max Quench Current Beginning of voltage rise LARP DOE Review July 15 -16, 2010

Max Quench Current Beginning of voltage rise LARP DOE Review July 15 -16, 2010 LARP CM 13 – Port Jefferson – Nov. 4 -6, 2009 Conductor and Cable - A. Ghosh G. Ambrosio – CERN Cable Test 37 37

Strand – Cable Ic Comparison – Include self-field for the strand test and that

Strand – Cable Ic Comparison – Include self-field for the strand test and that for the cable; how much? • 0. 483 T/k. A for strand (V. Kashikhin: assuming current redistribution within each filament), and 0. 11 T/KA for the cable self field (ANSYS) – Take strain into account; how? • Yes: Perform best fit of cable Ic data using parameterization (A. Godeke model) based on extracted witness samples (BNL and FNAL data), and strain as fit parameter • -0. 085% additional thermal strain in cable test (SS sample holder) compared to strand test on Ti-Al-V barrel LARP DOE Review July 15 -16, 2010 LARP CM 13 – Port Jefferson – Nov. 4 -6, 2009 Conductor and Cable - A. Ghosh G. Ambrosio – CERN Cable Test 38 38

Nomenclature • • • RRP® Re-Stack Rod Process Ic Critical current usually quoted at

Nomenclature • • • RRP® Re-Stack Rod Process Ic Critical current usually quoted at 12 T, 4. 2 K, A Jc Critical current density over the non-Cu area, A/mm 2 Is, Js Low-field Stability current, current density, A, A/mm 2 d filament diameter ~ sub-element diameter, mm RRR Residual Resistance Ratio of the Cu-matrix R(295 K)/R(18 K) Iq Quench current , can be > = or < than Ic, A C Volumetric Heat Capacity , J/m 3 -K V-I Set field then ramp current till wire quenches V-H Set current at zero field then ramp field UL Length of cable required for a magnet coil • emax applied strain for maximum Ic in Ic-strain measurements • eirr applied strain when Ic degrades irreversibly LARP DOE Review July 15 -16, 2010 Conductor and Cable - A. Ghosh 39

Observed in Magnetization measurements Persistent current collapses periodically at low fields d~ 70 mm

Observed in Magnetization measurements Persistent current collapses periodically at low fields d~ 70 mm d~ 50 mm LARP DOE Review July 15 -16, 2010 Conductor and Cable - A. Ghosh 40

Magnetization Instability at Low Fields Is 0. 7 mm RRP 54/61 d ~ 70

Magnetization Instability at Low Fields Is 0. 7 mm RRP 54/61 d ~ 70 µm Jc(12 T)~ 2700 A/mm 2 RRR ~ 5 V-I V-H Is LARP DOE Review July 15 -16, 2010 Conductor and Cable - A. Ghosh 41

Impact on LQ Magnet Performance LQ-Magnet with this Load-Line will Quench at 8 T

Impact on LQ Magnet Performance LQ-Magnet with this Load-Line will Quench at 8 T Un-Stable LARP DOE Review July 15 -16, 2010 Conductor and Cable - A. Ghosh 42