Bloodborne Pathogens Unit 1 HIV, AIDS, and Hepatitis
Lesson 1: Communicable Diseases Objectives: In this lesson, you will: • Learn the difference between infectious and communicable disease. • Explore how disease spreads from person to person.
Infectious & Communicable Diseases • An infectious disease results from an invasion of microorganisms. • A communicable disease is a type of infectious disease that can be transmitted from one person to another person. • Not all infectious diseases are communicable.
Chain of Infection 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Causative agent Reservoir Portal of exit Mode of transmission Portal of entry Susceptible host
What is the best way to break the chain of infection? Wash your hands frequently!
Modes of Transmission Bloodborne Transmission The blood of an infected person can be loaded with pathogens, making contact with blood highrisk for healthy individuals and workers in the medical field. Airborne Transmission Droplets in a sneeze or cough easily transmit pathogens through the air.
Modes of Transmission Vectorborne Transmission Outside sources, such as mosquitoes and ticks, have the potential to transmit pathogens. Casual Contact This means that the pathogen is spread through close body-to-body contact, such as a hug, or sharing personal items, such as a hairbrush or drinking glass.
Modes of Transmission Sexual contact with an infected person spreads infection through semen and vaginal fluids. Foodborne Transmission Contaminated or infected foods spread infection once they are ingested.
Lesson 1: Communicable Diseases Summary: In this lesson, you have: • Learned the difference between infectious and communicable disease. • Explored how disease spreads from person to person.
Lesson 2: HIV and AIDS Objectives: In this lesson, you will: • Explain the difference between HIV and AIDS. • Distinguish fact from fiction. • Explain how HIV and AIDS affect the body. • Identify laws that assist those infected with HIV and AIDS.
What does HIV stand for? Human Immunodeficiency Virus
HIV • Affects the body’s immune system by attacking T helper cells and multiplying • Patients can live many years with few or no symptoms • Left untreated, HIV weakens the body’s defenses until the point where AIDS is diagnosed
What does AIDS stand for? Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome
• Patient’s immune system so weak it can no longer fight illness • Diagnosis made by a measurement of immune system function or when the patient contracts certain infections • Common infections become life-threatening AIDS
How is HIV transmitted? Blood Semen & vaginal fluid Breast milk
Legal Protections • The Ryan White CARE Act funds medical care for HIV and AIDS patients. • The Americans with Disabilities Act protects patients, suspected patients, and associated individuals from discrimination in public, at work, and in school.
Lesson 2: HIV and AIDS Summary: In this lesson, you have: • Explained the difference between HIV and AIDS. • Distinguished fact from fiction. • Explained how HIV and AIDS affect the body. • Identified laws that assist those infected with HIV and AIDS.
Lesson 3: Hepatitis Objectives: In this lesson, you will: • Explain the difference between acute and chronic infections. • Discover the five types of hepatitis. • Explore the risk hepatitis poses to health care facilities.
What is Hepatitis? • Inflammation of the liver • Affects over 500 million people worldwide • Over 1 million die of hepatitis each year
Acute vs. Chronic • Recovery within a year • No lasting side effects • Long-term symptoms • Can cause cirrhosis, liver cancer, or liver failure
Five Types of Viral Hepatitis • Hepatitis A, B, C, D, and E • Hepatitis A & B can be vaccinated against. • Hepatitis B & C are common in health care settings. • OSHA requires that the hepatitis B vaccine be offered for free to healthcare workers. • Standard precautions and infection control practices can prevent the transmission of hepatitis.
Non-Viral Hepatitis • Caused by alcohol, toxins, and certain diseases • Alcohol-induced hepatitis is the most common cause of cirrhosis, which is when scar tissue affects the function of the liver.
Lesson 3: Hepatitis Summary: In this lesson, you have: • Explained the difference between acute and chronic infections. • Discovered the five types of hepatitis. • Explored the risk hepatitis poses to health care facilities.
Lesson 4: Testing Objectives: In this lesson, you will: • Explore the testing procedures for HIV and hepatitis. • Learn about the legal issues of testing and reporting. • Identify community resources.
Test Sites • Hospitals • Doctor’s offices • Health clinics • Family planning & STD centers • Drug treatment facilities Tests can be either confidential or anonymous.
Pre-HIV Test Counseling Health care provider takes a brief health history, looking for high risk behaviors such as: – Unprotected sex – Multiple sexual partners – Drug use
Testing Methods • Tests look for antibodies created in a process called seroconversion to attack HIV pathogens. • Often a simple blood test • Can also use oral fluid or urine • Another option is a home test that is sent to a lab
Post-HIV Test Counseling • If negative, the patient should be retested in three months to give the body time to react to the disease and create antibodies. • If positive, the patient should inform sexual partners who may have been exposed. • Federal government has agencies, committees, and programs to help HIV-positive patients.
Reporting • States are required to report the names of those who test positive to the federal government. • For anonymous tests, the provider only reports that an HIV-positive test has occurred.
Lesson 4: Testing Summary: In this lesson, you have: • Explored the testing procedures for HIV and hepatitis. • Learned about the legal issues of testing and reporting. • Identified community resources.