- Slides: 17
What is in blood? White blood cells – immune system Platelets – involved in clotting. Plasma – 55% of blood. Is a water solution. Red Blood Cells Carry oxygen throughout body Determine blood type
Blood Group Systems • Blood group systems is another name for the blood type. • There are 32 identified blood group systems (sets of antigens on the surface of red blood cells). • The most important ones are the ABO systems and Rh. D systems. • In the case of a transfusion or transplant, they will look at many more than these two. • Although rare, some blood types can change especially if a bone marrow transplant occurred.
What does your blood type mean? Different blood types have different SURFACE PROTEINS on their RED BLOOD CELLS
Rh Factor If your blood does contain the Rh protein, your blood is said to be Rh positive (Rh+) If your blood does NOT contain the Rh protein, your blood is said to be Rh negative (Rh-)
Antigens • Any foreign substance that stimulates the immune system. • Often foreign cells (like bacteria) or viruses. • Can be a foreign protein or other large molecule.
What are antibodies? An antibody is a protein produced by white blood cells that recognizes and helps fight any substance in the body that does not belong. They are created in response to antigens.
Your Body Protects Itself • When an antigen (foreign substance) is present – your body “manufactures” an antibody – Attaches to the foreign substance – This lets your immune system know to get rid of the foreign body. • In the case of blood, when these antigens are present, the antibodies attach to the antigen and cause the cells to link. • The process is called agglutination.
Transfusions • If the wrong blood type is put into a person, then they can die. • Type-A people cannot be exposed to any blood that has B-type antigens in it. They can donate to type A or AB people. • Type-B people cannot have any A antigens in the blood transfusion. They can donate to type B or AB people. • Type-O people cannot have any blood given that has any antigens in it, but can donate to everyone.
Rh and Transfusions • Rh factor is referring to another antigen on the red blood cells. • A person is either positive or negative. • Rh positive people can receive positive and negative blood, while Rh negative people can only receive other blood that is Rh negative. • The also becomes an issue with a pregnant mother if the Rh of the mother is negative and the baby is positive. • O negative people are universal donors • AB + people are universal acceptors.
Population Distribution O+ A+ B+ AB+ O- A- B- AB- U. S. 37. 4% 35. 7% 8. 5% 3. 4% 6. 6% 6. 3% 1. 5% 0. 6% India 36. 5% 22. 1% 30. 9% 6. 4% 2. 0% 0. 8% 1. 1% 0. 2% Hungary 32% 44% 16% 8% 0. 15% 0. 2% 0. 1% 0. 05% Saudi Arabia 48% 24% 17% 4% 4% 2% 1% 0. 23% Ireland 47% 26% 9% 2% 8% 5% 2% 1% Japan 29. 9% 39. 8% 19. 9% 0. 15% 0. 2% 0. 1% 0. 05% Brazil 36% 34% 8% 2. 5% 9% 8% 2% 0. 5%
Immunoassays • A chemical test that uses antibodies to identify a substance. • Antibodies that can stick to a particular substance can be created by injecting the particular substance into an animal. • The animal will have an immune response to the foreign antigen and produce antibodies that can stick to it. • Blood is then removed from the animal and these antibodies are separated from the blood and collected.
Immunoassays cont. • Once they have the antibodies, they can add them to a test sample to see if there is a response. • If there is, clumps begin to form called an immunoprecipitate. • Immunoassays can be used to detect a wide range of macromolecules, most are of proteins. (antigens and enzymes) • Blood typing was the first type of immunoassay used.
Heredity • Blood typing works with the Punnett squares that you learned in biology. • A or B is dominant and O is recessive. • A and B are codominant which means they both can be expressed at the same time. • Rh positive is dominant. • Child has to match one of the probable outcomes of the parents. So let’s do a bunch!