Blood Typing and Blood Genetics Blood Genetics The

  • Slides: 21
Download presentation
Blood Typing and Blood Genetics

Blood Typing and Blood Genetics

Blood Genetics The human ABO gene is on chromosome 9. l Everyone has two

Blood Genetics The human ABO gene is on chromosome 9. l Everyone has two copies of chromosome 9 so you have two ABO genes. l One copy is inherited from our mother, the other from our father. l

Alleles l There are three versions (called “alleles”) of this blood type gene: A,

Alleles l There are three versions (called “alleles”) of this blood type gene: A, B, and O. l A person’s blood type is determined by which allele he/she inherits from each parent.

Pheno vs. Geno The genetic makeup of an organism is called the “genotype”. l

Pheno vs. Geno The genetic makeup of an organism is called the “genotype”. l The “phenotype” is the visible properties of an organism. l In this case, the A, B, and O allele combination a person has is their genotype l Their blood type is their phenotype. l

Dominant vs. Recessive Genes The “A” allele is dominant and so is the “B”

Dominant vs. Recessive Genes The “A” allele is dominant and so is the “B” allele. l Together though, the “A” and “B” alleles are co-dominant. l The “O” allele is recessive. l

Determining the Genotype The blood type gene has three different alleles: l IA is

Determining the Genotype The blood type gene has three different alleles: l IA is Type A l IB results in Type B l i is Type O

Determining the Genotype l Scenario: Mom has the alleles IAIA for blood type and

Determining the Genotype l Scenario: Mom has the alleles IAIA for blood type and Dad has the alleles IBIB blood type. l What will be the blood type for their child? l

Punnett Sqaures IA IB IB IA

Punnett Sqaures IA IB IB IA

Practice Suppose that a mother has blood Type A and genotype IAi and the

Practice Suppose that a mother has blood Type A and genotype IAi and the father has blood Type B and genotype IBi. Draw a Punnett square to show the possible genotypes of their children. What are the phenotypes of the kids?

Practice B I A I i i

Practice B I A I i i

Blood Types The alleles we discussed “code” for blood type. l What they REALLY

Blood Types The alleles we discussed “code” for blood type. l What they REALLY “code” for is a specific enzyme. l That enzyme creates specific antigens on your RBC. l

Antigens An antigen is a protein (encoded from the right enzyme) that “sits” on

Antigens An antigen is a protein (encoded from the right enzyme) that “sits” on the surface of your RBC. l There are 2 different blood antigens, A and B. l If you have the A antigen, you have type A blood. l If you have the B antigen, you have type B blood. l

Antigens of the Surface of the RBC

Antigens of the Surface of the RBC

Antibodies Blood plasma is packed with proteins called antibodies. l The body produces a

Antibodies Blood plasma is packed with proteins called antibodies. l The body produces a wide variety of antibodies that will recognize and attack foreign molecules. l A person’s plasma does not contain any antibodies that will bind to molecules that are part of his or her own body. l

Blood Transfusions Tt is important to carefully match the donor and recipient blood types.

Blood Transfusions Tt is important to carefully match the donor and recipient blood types. l If the donor’s blood cells have antigen that are different from those of the recipient, antibodies in the recipient’s blood recognize the donor blood as foreign. l This triggers an immune response resulting in blood clotting. l

Blood Transfusions Antigen A B AB O Antibody Can donate Can receive to… from…

Blood Transfusions Antigen A B AB O Antibody Can donate Can receive to… from…

Relative Abundance of Blood Types A B 40 -42% 10 -12% AB O 3

Relative Abundance of Blood Types A B 40 -42% 10 -12% AB O 3 -5% 43 -45%

Interesting Facts Men generally have more red blood cells than women. l Rare blood

Interesting Facts Men generally have more red blood cells than women. l Rare blood types exist in addition to the basic ABO system. l

Rhesus Factor (Rh) If a person has a positive Rh factor, this means that

Rhesus Factor (Rh) If a person has a positive Rh factor, this means that their blood contains a protein that is also found in Rhesus monkeys. l Most people (about 85%) have a positive Rh factor l Rh is expressed as either positive or negative. l The Rh factor, like other antigens, is found on the surface of the red blood cells. l

Stats + O OA+ AB+ BAB+ AB- 1 in 3 persons 1 in 15

Stats + O OA+ AB+ BAB+ AB- 1 in 3 persons 1 in 15 persons 1 in 3 persons 1 in 16 persons 1 in 12 persons 1 in 67 persons 1 in 29 persons 1 in 167 persons