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Blood and Blood cells Average adult has 5 -6 liters of blood which circulates every 20 seconds Composition 78% water 22% Various solids
Function of Blood 1. transporting nutrients, oxygen & hormones 2. removing metabolic wastes and CO 2 3. providing immunity (resistance to disease) through antibodies 4. maintaining body temperature and electrolyte balance 5. clotting to prevent bleeding from a wound
Blood Vessels Three major types of blood vessels: arteries, capillaries, and veins. Arteries (arteri/o) large blood vessels that carry oxygen rich blood away from the heart to the body, arterial blood is bright red Aorta is the main part of arterial system, begins in the left ventricle Coronary arteries (coron/o) supplies the heart with blood. Arterioles are thinner branches, carry blood to capillaries http: //plus. maths. org/issue 36/interview/artery. jpg
Blood Vessels Cont’d Capillaries (capill/o) Blood vessels that connect arteries and veins to each other Smallest vessels in the body Blood flow is slower through capillaries; allows time for exchange of oxygen, nutrients, and waste products between surrounding cells and fluids Veins (phleb/o, ven/o) Responsible for carrying waste-filled blood back to heart Veins have valves that allow for one-way blood flow toward the heart Venules are small veins that join to form larger veins
Pulse & Blood Pressure Pulse – expansion and contraction of an artery caused by the pressure of the blood moving through the artery Blood Pressure – measures the amount of pressure applied against the walls of the vessels Example – 124/72 Systolic Pressure – the upper number of a blood pressure reading (124 / __ ) Diastolic Pressure – the lower number of a blood pressure reading ( __ / 72) http: //www. stockphotography. com/img/medical/stock_photos/blood_pressure_cuff. jpg
Blood The Blood (Hem/o or hemat/o) Blood is composed of 55% liquid plasma and 45% formed elements. Formed elements are red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. Plasma Liquid part of blood; contains nutrients, wastes and hormones 91% water, 9% proteins http: //www. bloodservices. ca/centreapps/internet/uw_v 502_mainengine. nsf/resources/Blood+Process/$file/Step 6_150. jpg Fibrinogen & prothrombin are clotting proteins to help blood clot and control bleeding
Erythrocytes (erythr/o = red + -cyte = cell) Also called red blood cells (RBC’s) Contains hemoglobin (hem/o = blood + -globin = protein) which is iron containing portion of erythrocyte Hemoglobin transports oxygen from the lungs to the tissues of the body Live about 120 days
Leukocytes (leuk/o = white + -cyte = cell) Also called white blood cells (WBC’s) Protect body against infection There are five types of leukocytes: Neutrophils – majority of WBC’s, fight infection by phagocytosis (engulfing & swallowing germs). Elevated count indicates a bacterial infection (strep, staph, etc. . ) Basophils – promote inflammatory response, elevated basophil count may indicate an allergic condition (ex. allergic reaction, asthma, etc…)
Leukocytes Cont’d. Types of Leukocytes cont’d. Eosinophils – formed in red bone marrow, increase in response to allergic conditions (ex - allergic reaction, asthma, etc…) Lymphocytes – formed in red bone marrow, lymph nodes, and spleen; protect body against disease Monocytes – Also formed in red bone marrow, lymph nodes and spleen. Help protect against disease, an elevated count usually indicates a chronic (long-term) condition http: //www. lymphomation. org/images/leukocytes-normal. gif
Thrombocytes (thromb/o = clot + -cyte = cell) Also known as platelets Smallest formed elements in the blood When blood vessel is damaged, platelets become sticky and clump together to form a clot Sample CBC Report
Blood Types Four major types: A, B, AB, and O Groups are based on whether A and/or B antigens are present on red blood cells In type O, both A & B antigens are absent In type AB, both A & B antigens are present See table 5. 2 on page 91
Blood Types Cont‘d. Blood Type Can Donate To Can Receive From A A, AB A, O B B, AB B, O AB AB A, B, AB, O O (only) (universal recipient) O (universal donor)
Rh Factor The Rh Factor People are either Rh positive or Rh negative If you are Rh positive, you have the Rh antigen If you are Rh negative, you do not have the Rh antigen It is important to know Blood Type and Rh factor if a patient is going to receive blood Blood Type and Rh Video
Blood System Disorders Aneurysm weak spot in the wall of an artery, causes it to balloon out and sometimes rupture (usually fatal due to blood loss) http: //www. nlm. nih. gov/medlineplus/ency/images/ency/fullsize/18072. jpg Arteriosclerosis (arteri/o = artery + -sclerosis = hardening) Hardening of the arteries which reduces blood flow through the artery
Blood System Disorders Cont’d Varicose Veins Abnormally swollen veins usually occurring in the legs http: //www. vascularweb. org/graphics/northpoint_graphics_jpg/graphics_miscellaneous/VV. jpg Thrombus blood clot attached to inside wall of vein or artery Embolus blood, air, fat or other substance circulating in the bloodstream. An embolism would be the blockage of the blood vessel by the embolus.
Blood System Disorders Cont’d Cholesterol fatty substances (lipids) that travel in the blood. Certain levels of cholesterol are normal and important for good health An abnormal condition exists when the cholesterol levels are above normal levels. Three kinds of cholesterol – LDL, HDL, Triglycerides Low density lipoprotein (bad kind) – contribute to plaque buildup in the arteries causing a narrowing for blood flow
Blood System Disorders Cont’d Cholesterol Cont’d High density lipoprotein (good kind) – carries unneeded cholesterol back to the liver for processing; does not contribute to plaque build-up in the arteries. Triglycerides – combination of fatty acids and glycerol found in the blood See table 5. 3, p. 95 http: //www. abc. net. au/health/library/img/cholesterol_arteries. jpg
Blood System Disorders Cont’d Leukemia (leuk/o = white + -emia = blood condition) progressive increase in the number of abnormal leukocytes; malignant (harmful) disorder Anemia lower than normal number of red blood cells Iron Deficiency Anemia Develops if not enough iron is available to the bone marrow to make hemoglobin. Caused by inadequate iron intake, pregnancy, breast feeding, or chronic (long term) blood loss.
Blood System Disorders Cont’d Sickle Cell anemia genetic disorder that causes abnormal hemoglobin abnormally shaped red blood cells (sickled instead of round) interferes with normal blood flow through the body http: //www. humanillnesses. com/original/images/hdc_0001_0003_0_img 0234. jpg
Diagnostic Tests Pulse Oximeter External monitor that is applied to the finger to measure oxygen in blood saturated with oxygen Normal is above 96% (blood saturated with oxygen) Arterial Blood Gases Measurement of other gases in blood (in addition to oxygen) The gas dissolved in liquid part of blood Blood gases include oxygen, carbon dioxide and nitrogen
Treatments / Procedures Medications Statins Used to lower bad cholesterol and raise good cholesterol Examples – Lipitor, Vytorin, Zocor, Pravachol (have you seen commercials? ? ) Anticoagulants Slows blood clotting and prevents new clots from forming Examples – aspirin, coumadin, heparin, plavix
Treatments / Procedures Blood Transfusion Transfusing whole blood or blood components (packed cells, etc. . ) into a patient. The blood must be carefully matched (A, B, AB, or O as well as Rh+ or Rh-) or the patient may suffer a severe reaction. Blood is tested for diseases like HIV and Hepatitis before transfusion so the disease is not spread to the recipient of the blood.
Treatments / Procedures Medications Cont’d. Tissue Plasminogen Activator (t. PA) Clot dissolving enzyme used for immediate treatment of heart attack and stroke victims. Breaks down the clot which reduces the damage to the heart (in heart attacks) and the brain (in stroke patients) Many billboards and commercials relating to prompt treatment for heart attacks and strokes. Aimed at encouraging patients to seek treatment quickly so drugs can be effective.
Blood System Abbreviations P – pulse BP – blood pressure RBC – red blood cells WBC – white blood cells LDL – low density lipoprotein HDL – high density lipoprotein ABG – arterial blood gas t. PA – tissue plasminogen activator
Career Opportunities Hematologist (hemat/o = blood + -ologist = specialist) specializes and treats disorders of the blood Phlebotomist Takes patient blood samples and prepares them for testing in the lab http: //healthcare. maricopa. edu/images/PHLEB. jpg Medical Laboratory Technologist (MT) Works under the supervision of pathologist to study tissues, fluids, and cells in the human body Medical Laboratory Assistant Prepares specimens for testing and helps clean and maintain laboratory equipment.