Blood Pressure Blood Pressure is The force exerted

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Blood Pressure

Blood Pressure

Blood Pressure is… • The force exerted against blood vessel walls • Responsible for

Blood Pressure is… • The force exerted against blood vessel walls • Responsible for the flow of blood • The result of: – Pumping action of the heart – Resistance of the blood vessels – Volume of blood

Pumping action of the heart… • • Systolic phase Systole Ventricles contract Blood Flows

Pumping action of the heart… • • Systolic phase Systole Ventricles contract Blood Flows out of the heart

Pumping action of the heart • Diastolic phase • Diastole • Heart relaxes

Pumping action of the heart • Diastolic phase • Diastole • Heart relaxes

Blood pressure is recorded… • As a fraction ie. 120/80 • Systolic pressure is

Blood pressure is recorded… • As a fraction ie. 120/80 • Systolic pressure is the numerator – The first sound heard • Diastolic pressure is the denominator – The change of sound or the last sound heard

Blood pressure sounds are… • Auscultated through a stethoscope • Sounds are correlated with

Blood pressure sounds are… • Auscultated through a stethoscope • Sounds are correlated with the readings on a sphygmomanometer • Blood pressure is recorded in millimeters of mercury (mm Hg)

Blood Pressure Variations… • Determine baseline – From medical record – Systolic palpated pressure

Blood Pressure Variations… • Determine baseline – From medical record – Systolic palpated pressure • Hypertension – High blood pressure • Hypotension – Low blood pressure • Orthostatic hypotension – Decrease in B/P with position change (from supine to erect)

Aneroid Sphygmomanometer • Use proper cuff width • Width should be approximately 80% of

Aneroid Sphygmomanometer • Use proper cuff width • Width should be approximately 80% of arm circumference • Place stethoscope under cuff at the brachial pulse location

Mercury sphygmomanometer

Mercury sphygmomanometer

Korotkoff Sounds • Sounds auscultated while assessing BP • 5 phases – Phase I:

Korotkoff Sounds • Sounds auscultated while assessing BP • 5 phases – Phase I: first sound, sharp tapping sound – systolic pressure – Phase II: soft swishing sound – Phase III: rhythmic tapping sound – Phase IV: muffling/fading of tapping sound – Phase V: point at which all sounds disappear – diastolic pressure

Trouble-shooting • False high reading – – Cuff too small Cuff too loose Slow

Trouble-shooting • False high reading – – Cuff too small Cuff too loose Slow cuff deflation Column or dial not at eye level – Poorly timed (anxiety, exercise, after eating) • Take BP first in infant or small child

Trouble-shooting • False low reading: • Incorrect position of arm or leg – Position

Trouble-shooting • False low reading: • Incorrect position of arm or leg – Position at heart level • Failure to notice auscultatory gap – Sounds fade out for 10 to 15 mm Hg then return • Inaudibility of low volume sounds • Column or dial not at eye level

Normal, Low & High BP • Normal blood Pressure: Top number is consistently under

Normal, Low & High BP • Normal blood Pressure: Top number is consistently under 120 and bottom number under 80 • Low BP (hypotension): Top number lower than 90 or 25 mm Hg lower than usual • Pre-high BP (pre-hypertension): Top number is consistently 120 – 139 or the bottom number reads 80 – 89 • Stage 1 high BP (hypertension): Top number is consistently 140 – 159 or the bottom number reads 90 – 99 • Stage 2 high BP (hypertension): Top number is consistently 160 or over or the bottom number reads 100 or over

Blood pressure readings… • Use same arm for readings • Do not take BP

Blood pressure readings… • Use same arm for readings • Do not take BP on arm with: – An IV – Paralysis – Injury – A-V shunt – Edema

Causes of high BP • Modifiable Risk Factors – – – Lack of exercise

Causes of high BP • Modifiable Risk Factors – – – Lack of exercise Obesity Excessive sodium Tobacco Alcohol stress • Non-Modifiable Risk factors • Age (men over 45, women over 55) • Race • heredity