- Slides: 16
Blood Doping By: Kale Hintz
What is blood doping? The misuse of certain techniques and/or substances to increase one’s red blood cell mass, which allows the body to transport more oxygen to muscles and therefore increase stamina. (WADA, 2011) https: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=t 6 OPh_a 11 QA
What are the most widely known types of blood doping? (WADA, 2011) -Three most common are: erythropoietin (EPO), using your own blood, and using other’s blood.
What are synthetic oxygen carriers? -Synthetic oxygen carriers, such as hemoglobin based oxygen carriers (HBOCs) or perflurocarbons (PFCs), are proteins or chemicals that can carry oxygen. Synthetic oxygen carriers appear useful for emergency therapeutic purposes when human blood is not available, the risk of blood infection is high or when there is not enough time to properly cross-match donated blood with a recipient. (WADA, 2011) Misuse for doping purposes carries the risk of cardiovascular disease in addition to various serious side effects like: stroke, myocardial infarction, embolism.
What is EPO? -EPO is a hormone produced naturally by the body. EPO is released from the kidneys and acts on the bone marrow to stimulate red blood cell production. An increase in red blood cells improves the amount of oxygen that the blood can carry to the body’s muscles. It may also increase the body’s capacity to buffer lactic (WADA, 2011) acid.
What are the sideeffects of EPO misuse? While proper use of EPO has an enormous benefit in the treatment of anemia related to kidney disease. Misuse can lead to serious health risks for athletes who use this substance simply to gain a competitive edge. It is well known that EPO, by thickening the blood, leads (WADA, 2011) to an increased risk of several deadly diseases, such as heart disease, stroke, and cerebral or pulmonary embolism. The misuse of recombinant human EPO may also lead to autoimmune diseases with serious health consequences.
When was a test to detect EPO implemented? -A test for EPO was introduced at the 2000 Summer Olympic Games in Sydney (Australia). The test, validated by the International Olympic Committee (IOC), was based on blood and urine matrices. A blood screening was performed first and a urine test was then used to confirm possible use of EPO. In June 2003, WADA’s Executive Committee accepted the results of an independent report stating that urine tests alone can be used to detect the presence of recombinant EPO. (WADA, 2011) Recently, the urine test used for the detection of some new erythropoiesis stimulating agents was adapted for blood testing.
Can synthetic oxygen carriers be detected? -Yes. A test was implemented in 2004.
What are the different types of blood transfusions for doping? -There are two forms of blood doping: autologous and homologous. Autologous blood doping is the transfusion of one’s own blood, which has been stored until needed. Homologous blood doping is the transfusion of blood that has been taken from (WADA, 2011) another person with the same blood type. Although the use of blood transfusions for blood doping dates back several decades, its recent resurgence is likely due to the introduction of efficient EPO detection methods.
Which forms of transfusions can be detected? -A test for homologous blood transfusions (HBT) was implemented at the 2004 Summer Olympic Games in Athens. WADA is funding research projects aimed at developing a test for autologous transfusions. In order to further improve detection of abnormal blood profiles, WADA is leading the development of a strategy against in sport called the Athlete Passport, (WADA, doping 2011) which is based on following athlete's biological variables over time.
What are the side effects of doping by blood transfusions? -Like the other forms of blood doping, transfusions have serious medical consequences. Another person’s blood may contain a virus, which is unwittingly passed on during the transfusion. An athlete uses his or her own blood, can put themselves at significant health risks if the procedure is not done properly or if the blood is not handled or stored in a proper manner. Unnaturally high red blood cell levels increase the risk of heart attack, stroke, and pulmonary or cerebral embolism. (WADA, 2011)
Legal Case 1 UNITED STATES ANTI-DOPING AGENCY v. These eleven teammates, of Lance Armstrong, came forward and provided LANCE ARMSTRONG testimony against the US Postal Service Cycling Team-run blood doping operation: Frankie Andreu, Michael Barry, Tom Danielson, Tyler Hamilton, George Hincapie, Floyd Landis, Levi Leipheimer, Stephen Swart, Christian Vande Velde, Jonathan Vaughters and David Zabriskie. Lance Armstrong was given the same opportunity to come forward and be part of the solution. He rejected it. (USADA, 2012)
Ruling“The USADA found beyond reasonable doubt that Lance Armstrong engaged in serial cheating through the use, administration and trafficking of performance enhancing drugs and methods and that Armstrong participated in running the U. S. Postal Service Team as a doping conspiracy. Armstrong and his co-conspirators sought to achieve ambitions through a massive fraud now more fully exposed. The United States Anti-Doping Agency has found Lance Armstrong violated the applicable anti-doping rules, that his competitive results achieved since August 1, 1998, should be, and are, (USADA, 2012) disqualified and that he is properly ruled ineligible for life according to terms of Article 10. 1 of the World Anti-Doping Code. ” Armstrong appear on Oprah January 17 th 2013, and admitted to blood doping in all seven of hi Tour e France win, and when asked if he could have won these races without the methods and drugs he said that in his opinion he could not have.
Legal case 2 International Association of Athletics Federation (IAAF) v. Russian female track team In August of 2008, the IAAF provisionally suspended six female Russian athletes of whom were listed to compete in Beijing. These athletes samples raised suspicions that some Russian officials were involved in helping the athletes to manipulate the samples by providing "clean" urine from a source, or knowing of the drug-taking activities. Drug-testers had been suspicious of the urine given by the Russians since 2006 because it regularly appeared too pure. (Magnay, 2008)
The athletes involved in urine manipulation consisted of: • Soboleva, 2001 world 5000 metres champion • Yegorova (who had tested positive before the world titles to EPO but was allowed to compete after problems with the drug-testing procedure), • distance runners Fomenko and Cherkasova, • former world hammer record-holder Gulfiya Khanafeyeva • world championships silver medalist discus thrower Dariya Pishchalnikova. Thee athletes were tested and suspended if (Magnay, found 2008) positive for the doping tests
Works Cited Butterworth, T. (2012). The Kafkaesque Trial of Lance Armstrong: A Former Fedral Prosecutor On the US Anti-Doping Agency's Disregard For Due Process. Forbes. Magnay, J. (2008, August 2). Russia faces IOC action over drugs. Retrieved 2014, from theage. com. au: http: //www. theage. com. au/news/latestnews/russia-faces-ioc-action-over-drugs/2008/08/01/1217097535147. html USADA. (2012). Statement From USADA CEO Travis T. Tygart Regarding The U. S. Postal Service Pro Cycling Team Doping Conspiracy. USADA. WADA. (2011, September). World Anti-Doping Agency play true. (W. 2014, Editor, & WADA, Lightmaker) Retrieved April 23, 2014, from www. wada-ama. org: http: //www. wada-ama. org/en/resources/q-and-a/blood-doping/