Blenheim August 13 1704 Strategic Context England as

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Blenheim August 13, 1704 Strategic Context England, as part of its commitment to the

Blenheim August 13, 1704 Strategic Context England, as part of its commitment to the Grand Alliance with Holland, Austria, and Prussia, sends then-Earl of Marlborough to Holland in 1702 to fight the French, Spanish, and Bavarian alliance. The war concerns France and Spain’s attempt to join their dynasties after the death of the Spanish King, himself a Hapsburg, which would strengthen France and disrupt Europe’s balance of power. Marlborough eventually becomes frustrated by lack of Dutch cooperation in fighting the superior French there and favours Eugene of Savoy’s concept of operating in the Danube Valley. The goal of these operations are to guard the Austrian capital of Vienna and knock Bavaria out of the war. The combined Franco-Bavarian army under Duc de Tallard (26, 000) and Elector of Bavaria (30, 000) fail to defeat Eugene’s army (20, 000) before it can unite with Marlborough’s army (32, 000). Tallard and Elector remain confident in their strong defensive position, however. To view animation on PC: hit F 5 To view animation on Mac: hit ⌘ + enter Stakes + A Franco-Bavarian victory would threaten Vienna and Austria’s presence in the war as a whole. + An Allied victory would preserve Vienna and Austria’s presence in the war as a whole while threatening Bavaria’s. By Jonathan Webb, 2009

Blenheim, 1704 Strength §French §Allies §Duc de Tallard §Elector of Bavaria §Duke of Marlborough

Blenheim, 1704 Strength §French §Allies §Duc de Tallard §Elector of Bavaria §Duke of Marlborough §Eugene of Savoy § 56, 000 § 52, 000 §Well By Jonathan Webb, 2009

Europe c. 1704

Europe c. 1704

The grassy battlefield is enclosed to the west and north by wooded hills, and

The grassy battlefield is enclosed to the west and north by wooded hills, and to the southeast by the Danube River. The battlefield is divided by the Nebel Stream running east-west, which is a difficult obstacle with its marshy banks, especially near Unterglau. Various barricaded villages dot the battlefield. The terrain makes it difficult for any army to advance and attack along a north-south axis. Allies (Marlborough/Eugene) Schwennenbach Nebel Stream Unterglau Lutzingen Oberglau Danube River Blenheim Franco-Bavarians (Tallard/Elector) Sonderheim

Tallard deploys army on the Elector onwith the left; both nearly equal in the

Tallard deploys army on the Elector onwith the left; both nearly equal in the size. Tallard/Elector agree on awith defensive concept of holding the The Allies attack inhis every sector except Marlborough’s. Eugene launches a massive but disheartened attack suffers horrendous casualties his smaller Marlborough A sizeable riftorders develops Cutts between to launch the antwo attack Allied against armies, Blenheim. which Marsin Cutts’ first seeks wave to exploit is slaughtered on his own inand an initiative instant although a although strong Clerambault attack supported overreacts by to Marlborough advances steadily, the cavalry edging ahead. Tallard assails the Allied cavalry while they are on marshy ground which Holstein Beck counterattacks and pushes Blainville across Nebel to besiege Oberglau atwhich heavy cost Cutts Marlborough renews and the attack Cutts threaten onright, Blenheim fresh with waves aback limited of infantry, attack before but must Clerambault withdraw surrenders. behind the Nebel Elector in sees the face the already secure flanks, and attacking Marlborough’s vulnerable main force as it crosses the Nebel and occupies marshy ground. Marlborough force cannot sustain for long. Holstein Beck attacks Oberglau but is forced to withdraw in the face of a strong cavalry counterattack by Blainville. Meanwhile, the Blainville. relatively Marlborough small attack sends by stuffing nearby reserves any available to assist infantry but still into must Blenheim. appeal Meanwhile, to Eugene for aid in attempts containing to turn this dangerous Elector’s flank wedge. by pinning Eugene his is briefly turn to volleys retreat until supporting infantry stiffen nerve. Marlborough’s forces Les routs Tallard’s cavalry and completely and commitment. With a disproportionate amount oftheir Franco-Bavarian troops pinned down inside Blenheim and Oberglau, of battle abundant is lost and the from Bavarians Blenheim retreat, and an torching attack by Lutzingen Tallard’s and elite Oberglau cavalry, on the Gens way. d’Armes. Tallard Eugene is captured fares after Tallard’s Gens d’Armes chase Cutts’ infantry too far, they are scattered by Allied cavalry, which in turn overextend themselves and are destroyed; the deploys his army on the left, Eugene on the right; Marlborough’s the much larger. Marlborough/Eugene plan for Eugene to pin down Francocenter hard-pressed with cavalry but trusts and attacking Marlborough Lutzingen and immediately with infantry. sends Bavarian a cavalry force quickly that succeeds repelwhile thein Allied blunting cavalry andhowever. containing surrounds a portion of his infantry. then turns to cavalry encircle Blenheim Tallard tries to into rally. Blenheim. his. Marsin’s army atattack. Sonderheim. Marlborough patiently draws up Marlborough his force for the decisive against Tallard, can do little but wait. defeat of Gens d’Armes has an awful effect on main Frenchattack morale while Clerambault continuesstroke to pack all available reserveswho nearly somewhere same; between his infantry Blenheim also Sonderheim, withdraw behind trying to the rally Nebel to of avoid his troops. being encircled by Elector’s Bavarianthe reserves in rough terrain onmust theand right, in order to enable Marlborough tomore launch a decisive attack on more suitable terrain incavalry. the center. Eugene Franco-Bavarians Allies (Duke (Duc de of Tallard/Elector Marlborough/Eugene of Bavaria) of Savoy) Holstein Beck 56, 000 52, 000 Allies (Marlborough/Eugene) Marlborough Schwennenbach Cutts Franco-Bavarians Allies Nebel Stream Lutzingen Infantry Cavalry Unterglau Oberglau Elector Marsin Blainville Danube River Blenheim Clerambault Tallard Clerambault Symbol guide Franco-Bavarians (Tallard/Elector) Tallard Sonderheim Landmarks

Blenheim, 1704 Casualties & Aftermath Franco-Bavarians: Allies: 34, 000 14, 000 or or 61%

Blenheim, 1704 Casualties & Aftermath Franco-Bavarians: Allies: 34, 000 14, 000 or or 61% 27% The Allied victory knocked Bavaria out of the war, saved the Grand Alliance from collapse, and shattered the myth of French invincibility. This battle ensured the Grand Alliance remained on the strategic and moral offensive throughout the war, although it was fiercely fought on for another decade. Blenheim proved to be the turning point however. By Jonathan Webb, 2009

The Art of Battle: Animated Battle Maps http: //www. theartofbattle. com By Jonathan Webb,

The Art of Battle: Animated Battle Maps http: //www. theartofbattle. com By Jonathan Webb, 2009