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Phys 181 -701 Astronomy Galileo’s Apparatus – Deutches Museum, Munchen, Germany 5

“To command the professors of astronomy to confute their own observations is to enjoin an impossibility, for it is to command them to not see what they do see, and not to understand what they do understand, and to find what they do not discover. ” Galileo Galilei – In Science “Numero pondere et mensura Deus omnia condidit. ” Sir Isaac Newton – Principia Mathematica “If I have been able to see further, it was only because I stood on the shoulders of giants. ” Newton, in a letter to Robert Hooke 6

Programming Notes…. . P r o g r a m m i 7

M a r t i n 8

The Results Are In… E x a m R Exam Average = 74. 2% = 44. 52/60 9

REVIEW: Kepler Develops Three Laws: • Law of Ellipses • Law of Areas • Harmonic Law We now understand HOW the planets move… but not WHY they move. Review 10

Galileo: The Death of the Earth Centered Universe • Contemporary of Kepler • Demonstrated that all objects are accelerated by gravity by the same amount • Moving objects remain in motion • Built a telescope in 1609* and observed the Sun, Moon, Milky Way, Moons of Jupiter and the phases of Venus. 1564 -1642 *Hans Lippershey invented the telescope in 1608 11

If we assume (incorrectly) that the Tower of Pisa is 20 m tall, the ball will take 2 s to hit the ground. 12

Even if the ball is thrown horizontally from the tower, the acceleration toward the earth is still 10 m/s 2. As a result, the ball that is dropped and the ball that is thrown both hit the ground after 2 seconds!!! We will return to this essential idea in a few slides… 13

Sir Isaac Newton 1642 -1727 Newton’s Laws: 1. All objects at rest shall remain at rest and all objects in motion shall Remain in motion in a straight line, unless compelled by a FORCE to do otherwise. 2. The ACCELERATION of any object is directly proportional to the FORCE applied to it and inversely proportional to its MASS. 3. For every force applied to an object, there is an equal and opposite force applied by the object on the actor. 14

N e w t o n v. s Newton’s Laws Relative to Galileo’s Experiment: 1. When the ball is dropped it ceases to be at rest. Therefore there must be a force, directed downward, to cause the acceleration. 2. The acceleration will be equal to the force that gravity exerts on the ball divided by the mass of the ball, that is, the acceleration is equal to the force per unit mass. 3. If the Earth exerts a gravitational force on the ball, the ball must exert an equal and opposite force on the Earth!!!! 15

Law of Universal Gravitation Newton knows that the more mass an object has, the greater the force of Gravity on it. F G= m g Where “g” is the special name given to the acceleration that is caused by gravity. 10 m/s 2 16

The inverse square law… Inverse square 17

The Law 18

Example: Example 19

“Weighing” the Earth… A & B have equal masses and therefore equal weights. The rod is balanced. 20

The very small mass is needed to balance the gravitational force of the very large mass. “G” can be calculated! Knowing G and Kepler’s Law’s allows us to calculate the mass of the Earth, Sun and all of the planets moons and asteroids in the solar system 21

Return to Pisa…The earth is not flat… Return to Pisa 22

Curved Earth After one second the projectile has fallen five meters… But the earth has curved away. 23

Question… If the earth is curved such that it “curves away” 5 meters for every 8000 meters traveled, how fast would the projectile need to be going so that, after falling 5 meters, it was still 5 meters above the earth? Q u e s t 8000 m/s!!! 24

• Newton invents calculus Summary • Newton Proves Kepler’s Laws • Universal Gravitation used to determine the mass of the earth • Tides understood • Moon “lock” understood • Satellite motion possible • Solar system travel made possible 25

S u m m a 26

Electromagnetic Radiation Chapter 3 (3. 3, 3. 4, 3. 5) Chapter 4 (4. 2, 4. 4) 27

The frequency is measured in Hertz (Hz) and is the number of waves which pass a given point in one second. 28

Time period of mars 29

NEXT TIME: Two Laws of RADIATION E 30

- Slides: 30