What is Birth Tourism? ▪ It is travel to another country for the purpose of giving birth there ▪ The babies are sometimes called “anchor babies" ▪ The main reason for birth tourism is to obtain citizenship for the child in a country with birthright citizenship. ▪ Other reasons include access to public schooling, healthcare, sponsorship for the parents in the future, etc ▪https: //globalnews. ca/news /4411137/birth-tourismcanada/ 1: 52
Jus Soli ▪commonly referred to as birthright citizenship ▪it is the right of anyone born in the country to nationality or citizenship. ▪is the predominant rule in the Americas, but it is rare elsewhere ▪Almost all states in Europe, Asia, Africa and Oceania grant citizenship at birth based upon the principle of jus sanguinis (right of blood), in which citizenship is inherited through parents not by birthplace 3
Where Is This Happening? ▪Popular destinations include the United States and Canada. ▪Another target for birth tourism is Hong Kong, where mainland Chinese citizens travel to give birth to gain right of abode for their children. ▪ As a non-sovereign territory, Hong Kong does not have its own citizenship; the status akin to citizenship in Hong Kong is the right of abode, also known as permanent residence.
China vs Hong Kong ▪ Many are using this to get around China's twochild policy ▪As a result, there has been an influx of mainland mothers giving birth in Hong Kong in order to obtain right of abode for the child. ▫ In 2009, 36% of babies born in Hong Kong were born to parents originating from Mainland China ▪ This has exacerbated social and cultural tensions between Hong Kong and mainland China.
Trying to Discourage Birth Tourism ▪To discourage birth tourism, Australia, France, Germany, Ireland, New Zealand, South Africa, and the United Kingdom have modified their citizenship laws, granting citizenship by birth only if at least one parent is a citizen of the country or a legal permanent resident who has lived in the country for several years. ▪In 2015 Federal Agents in Los Angeles conducted a series of raids on 3 "multimillion-dollar birth-tourism businesses"
▪Russian birth tourism to Florida to 'maternity hotels' in the 2010 s is big business ▪Birth tourism packages complete with lodging and medical care delivered in Russian begin at $20, 000, and go as high as $84, 700 for an apartment in Miami's Trump Tower II complete with a "gold-tiled bathtub and chauffeured Cadillac Escalade. "
Why Is Canada Desirable ▪Canada's citizenship law has, since 1947, generally conferred Canadian citizenship at birth to anyone born in Canada, regardless of the citizenship or immigration status of the parents. ▪ ▪The only exception is for children born in Canada to diplomats ▪The Canadian government has considered limiting jus soli citizenship
Cheap School in Quebec ▪A Québec birth certificate entitles a student enrolled in that province to pay university tuition at the lower in-province rate; on average this was $3760/year