- Slides: 37
Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering
Human Genetic Engineering Introductory video: https: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=d. KBfxo. P n. T 7 g 8: 19 in length
Genome • All an organism’s genetic information • Chromosomes • Genes • DNA
Human Genome Project • Mapped bacterial genome • Mapped genes on all human chromosomes
Computer Analysis of DNA
Computer analysis of DNA
HGP Pros • Commercial success(created $800, 000 billion and employed 4 million) • Many serious diseases and disorders are better understood and treated • Predict/maybe even cure genetic disorders • More “intelligent” drugs to treat disorders • Learn how bacteria cause disease • Make disease-resistant plants
HGP Cons • Ethical questions: some people believe it messes with natural selection and sequencing. • Privacy issues. Personal genetic information is shared with organizations and could someday lead to who gets treatment. • GMOs. Controversy over genetically modifying our food supply.
Video on ethics: • https: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=Apjebt al 8 b. Q Ethical, Legal, Social Implications of Genetic Knowledge (Less than 2 minutes)
Plasmids • Circular DNA in bacteria • Extra chromosomes • Offer variation in bacteria
Recombinant Plasmid • Genetic engineering is based on the use of recombinant DNA • Combining DNA from plasmid another source (contains DNA from more than one organism).
Recombinant Plasmid- Cut • Restriction enzymes (endonuclease) • Recognize and cut at specific DNA sequence (Recognition sequence/Restriction site) • Form “sticky ends”
Recombinant Plasmid. Insert and Paste • “Sticky ends” from 2 DNAs cut with same restriction enzyme join • How DNA ligase works:
Transformation • Bacteria cells take in recombinant plasmid • Recombinant plasmid reproduces
Transformation Test • Add antibiotic-resistant genes • Grow bacteria on plate with antibiotics • Survive = bacteria with genes (recombinant DNA)
• Animation of Recombinant DNA: • http: //www. dnalc. org/view/15476 Mechanism-of-Recombination-3 Danimation-with-basic-narration. html (less than 2 minutes)
Transgenic Organisms (GMO) • Given a foreign gene • Used to create human hormones & proteins • Used widely in agriculture
Eyes of Nye – GMO Foods http: //ecowatch. com/2014/10/15/bill-nyescience-guy-gmo-foods/ Length 7: 58
Cloning • Organisms made with exact same DNA
This is Nico!!!!! No genetic engineering!! LOL
The Eyes of Nye – Cloining https: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=W 4 v. OPa on. Zng&safe=active Length: 24: 45
Viruses • • Inject their DNA into host cell Host cell makes copies and viral proteins Viruses reproduce Used to introduce new genes in organisms • Called “vectors”
Gene Therapy • • • Treat genetic disorders Correct gene inserted into viral DNA Virus puts gene back in body Correct gene replicated Correct proteins made
Gene Therapy Video Clip Exposure Therapy Helps People Control Their Fears http: //news. discovery. com/human/videos/ho w-does-gene-therapy-work-video. htm Length: 3: 39
NBC News clip: Gene Therapy Offers New Hope to Cancer Patients http: //www. nbcnews. com/video/nightlynews/53784650#53784650 Length: 2: 22
• Gel electrophoresis is a method for separation and analysis of macromolecules (DNA, RNA and proteins) and their fragments, based on their size and charge.
• Example of using Gel Electrophresis from the Genetic Engineering (Frog DNA…) you. Tube video we watched: https: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=nf. C 689 E l. UVk This video actually shows the entire process of recombinant DNA. Gel electrophresis is at the very end. (frog DNA video)
• An electrical current is used to separate a mixture of DNA fragments from each other.
Under an ultraviolet light DNA fragments of different sizes appear as different bands in the gel.