- Slides: 6
Biotechnology …and Gel Electrophoresis
Biotechnology • Definition: The use of biological processes, organisms, or systems to manufacture products intended to improve the quality of human life. • Genetic engineering makes it possible to transfer DNA sequences from one organism to another • REMEMBER- DNA is universal • A gene taken from one species can be replicated in another species.
Recombinant DNA • Recombinant DNA contains DNA from 2 or more different sources. • Vector: something used to transfer DNA from one organism to another – Microinjection – Gene Gun – Virus – Bacteria Plasmid (Most important for this unit) • A plasmid is a circular piece of DNA that exists apart from the chromosome and replicates independently of it.
Making recombinant DNA • The plasmid is removed and cut in one location by a restriction enzyme (protein that cuts DNA). A different piece of DNA can then be put in the plasmid. Ligase (enzyme) sticks the DNA together. The new DNA is placed back in the bacteria to replicate the information. The bacteria is now considered transgenetic.
DNA Fingerprinting • • In DNA Fingerprinting, the DNA of an organism is cut up into fragments using restriction enzymes producing a large number of fragments of DNA Because no two individuals have identical DNA, no two individuals will have the same length fragments This technique allows us to identify families because their gel samples will look similar due to their similar DNA. On the next page, Wells A, B, and C have similar gel samples meaning they are related.
Gel Electrophoresis • • • Start Gel electrophoresis is a technique used to separate the DNA fragments according to their size DNA fragments are placed in wells on a sheet of agarose gel Gel is slightly porous and allows fragments to move through the gel at a rate relative to their size Finish Shortest DNA Fragments longest DNA Fragments Well