Biology Management Diseases and Uses of Sheep Goats

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Biology, Management, Diseases, and Uses of Sheep, Goats, and Cattle CPT Chad D. Foster

Biology, Management, Diseases, and Uses of Sheep, Goats, and Cattle CPT Chad D. Foster Chief, NHP Clinical Medicine USAMRIID 26 Oct 05

Previously Presented By: • CPT Curtis Klages – Goats • CPT Christopher Keller –

Previously Presented By: • CPT Curtis Klages – Goats • CPT Christopher Keller – Sheep • LTC Kelcin Buchanan – Sheep & Goats

Purpose

Purpose

Outline • • • Taxonomy Uses in research Sources/Evaluation Management and Husbandry Unique Biology

Outline • • • Taxonomy Uses in research Sources/Evaluation Management and Husbandry Unique Biology Goat Normal Values Basic Nutrition Reproduction Behavior Diseases

Taxonomy Sheep • Order: Artiodactyla (even toed ungulates) • Sub-order: Ruminantia (cud chewing animals)

Taxonomy Sheep • Order: Artiodactyla (even toed ungulates) • Sub-order: Ruminantia (cud chewing animals) • Family: Bovidae • Sub-family: Caprinae • Genus and sub-genus: Ovis • Domestic sheep = Ovis aries • Subgenus Pachyceros includes the wild North American breeds

Breeds Sheep • Meat – Dorset, Columbia, Suffolk, Hampshire, Southdown, Border Cheviot • Wool

Breeds Sheep • Meat – Dorset, Columbia, Suffolk, Hampshire, Southdown, Border Cheviot • Wool – Merino, Rambouillet, Lincoln, Romney • Hair – Barbados • Dual-Purpose: – Targhee, Polypay

Terminology Sheep • Female: ewe • Intact Male: ram • Young Animal: lamb –

Terminology Sheep • Female: ewe • Intact Male: ram • Young Animal: lamb – Ewe lamb – Ramb lamb • Castrated Male: wether • Birthing Process: lambing

Taxonomy Goats • Order: Artiodactyla (even toed ungulates) • Sub-order: Ruminantia (cud chewing animals)

Taxonomy Goats • Order: Artiodactyla (even toed ungulates) • Sub-order: Ruminantia (cud chewing animals) • Family: Bovidae • Sub-family: Caprinae • Genus and sub-genus: Capra • Capra hircus is domestic goat originated from western Asian goats • Others include: – Capra pyrenaica (Spanish goat) – Capra ibex (Goats of the Red Sea and Caucasus area) – Capra falconiere (wild goat of Afghanistan)

Breeds Goats • Dairy – Nubian, Alpine, Toggenbutg, La Mancha, Saanen, Oberhaslie • Fiber

Breeds Goats • Dairy – Nubian, Alpine, Toggenbutg, La Mancha, Saanen, Oberhaslie • Fiber – Angora, Cashmere • Meat – Boer, Sapel, Ma Tou, Kambling, Pygmy • Leather – Mubend (Uganda), Red Sokoto (West Africa)

Terminology Goats Female: doe or nanny Intact male: buck or billy Young goat: kid

Terminology Goats Female: doe or nanny Intact male: buck or billy Young goat: kid or goatling Young male: buckling Young female: doeling Castrated Male: wether or steer Birthing Process: kidding

Taxonomy Cattle • Order: Artiodactyla (even toed ungulates) • Sub-order: Ruminantia (cud chewing animals)

Taxonomy Cattle • Order: Artiodactyla (even toed ungulates) • Sub-order: Ruminantia (cud chewing animals) • Family: Bovidae • Subfamily: Bovinae • Genus & Species – Bos taurus (domestic cattle) – Bos indicus (Zebu cattle)

Breeds Cattle • Dairy – Holstein-Fresian (most common cow used as animal model), Jersey,

Breeds Cattle • Dairy – Holstein-Fresian (most common cow used as animal model), Jersey, Brown Swiss, Milking Shorthorn, Ayrshire, Guernsey • Beef – Angus, Hereford, Simmental

Terminology Cattle • • Female: cow Intact Male: bull Young Animal: calf Female prior

Terminology Cattle • • Female: cow Intact Male: bull Young Animal: calf Female prior to first calf: heifer • Castrated Male: steer • Birthing Process: calving

Uses in Research • Ruminants – Cardiac Research • Transplantation, cardiac assist & prosthetics

Uses in Research • Ruminants – Cardiac Research • Transplantation, cardiac assist & prosthetics – Reproductive Research • Embryo transfer, AI, reproductive cycle control – Genetics • Gene transfer, cloning, nuclear transfer, genetic engineering – Antibody Production – Surgically Induced: Osteopenia, Fracture repair, ACL reconstruction (Sheep & Goats)

Uses in Research • Sheep Disease Models – General • Fetal & Reproductive Research

Uses in Research • Sheep Disease Models – General • Fetal & Reproductive Research • Circadian Rhythms related to day-length • Interaction between olfactory cues and behavior

Uses in Research • Sheep Disease Models – Squamous Cell Carcinoma (No. 252) •

Uses in Research • Sheep Disease Models – Squamous Cell Carcinoma (No. 252) • Animal: Ovine SCC • Human: SCC – Congenital Goiter (No. 350) • Animal: Congenital Goiter in Merino Sheep • Human: Congenital Goiter – Intestinal Adenocarcinoma • Animal: Adenocarcinoma of the SI of Sheep • Human: Adenocarcinoma of the Human Colon

Uses in Research • Sheep Disease Models – Congenital Hyperbilirubinemia (No. 2) • Animal:

Uses in Research • Sheep Disease Models – Congenital Hyperbilirubinemia (No. 2) • Animal: Dubin-Johnson Syndrome in Corriedale • Dubin-Johnson Syndrome • Hepatic organic anion excretory defect – Congenital Hyperbilirubinemia (No. 8) • Animal: Gilbert’s Syndrome in Southdown Sheep • Human: Gilbert’s Syndrome • Hepatic organic anion uptake defect

Uses in Research • Sheep Disease Models – Muscular Dystrophy (No. 51) • Animal:

Uses in Research • Sheep Disease Models – Muscular Dystrophy (No. 51) • Animal: Congenital Progressive Ovine Muscular Dystrophy • Human: Muscular Dystrophy – Immune-Mediated Arthritis (No. 418) • Animal: Lentivirus-induced arthritis of sheep & goats (Ov. LV & CAEV respectively) • Human: Rheumatoid Arthritis

Uses in Research • Sheep Disease Models – GM 1 Gangliosidosis (No. 395) •

Uses in Research • Sheep Disease Models – GM 1 Gangliosidosis (No. 395) • Animal: Ovine GM 1 Gangliosidosis in Suffolk • Human: GM 1 Gangliosidosis – Wilson’s Disease (No. 307) • Animal: Chronic (cumulative) Cu Poisoning • Human: Wilson’s Disease • Induced model

Uses in Research • Sheep Disease Models – Transmissible Spongiform Encephaolopathy • Animal: Scrapie

Uses in Research • Sheep Disease Models – Transmissible Spongiform Encephaolopathy • Animal: Scrapie • Human: Kuru, Creutzfeld-Jakob Disease (CJD) – Glucose-6 -Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency in Dorsett Sheep – Pulmonary Adenomatosis (jaagsiekte) – Other Induced Models • Arteriosclerosis • Hemorrhagic shock • Metabolic toxicosis

Uses in Research • Goats (General) – – – Immunology Mastitis Nutrition Parasitology Vascular

Uses in Research • Goats (General) – – – Immunology Mastitis Nutrition Parasitology Vascular

Uses in Research • Goat Models – Beta-Mannosidosis (No. 369) • Animal: Beta-Mannosidosis in

Uses in Research • Goat Models – Beta-Mannosidosis (No. 369) • Animal: Beta-Mannosidosis in Nubian goats – this inbred line of Nubians also serve as models for therapeutic cell transplantation strategies • Human: Beta-Mannosidase Deficiency – Congenital Myotonia • Animal: Caprine Myotonia Congenita (“fainting goats”) • Myotonia Congenita (Thompsen’s Disease)

Uses in Research • Goat Models – Other disease models • Osteoporosis • Caprine

Uses in Research • Goat Models – Other disease models • Osteoporosis • Caprine Mucoploysaccharidosis IIID (Sanfillipo Syndrome Type D) • Melanoma • Inflammatory Bowel Disease • Afibrinogenemia • Hereditary Congenital Goiter • Legg-Calve-Perthes Disease (sx induced) – Hyperimmune Serum Production

Uses in Research • Cattle (General) – Permanent fistula • ruminal fluid for research,

Uses in Research • Cattle (General) – Permanent fistula • ruminal fluid for research, teaching, treatment – Infectious Diseases – Metabolic Diseases

Uses in Research • Cattle Disease Models – Tritrichomonas (Trichomonas) fetus • Animal: Bovine

Uses in Research • Cattle Disease Models – Tritrichomonas (Trichomonas) fetus • Animal: Bovine Trichomoniasis • Human: Trichomonis vaginalis infection – Inherited Cardiomyopathies in Holstein. Fresian, Simmental-Red Holstein, Black Spotted Fresian, & Polled Hereford with wooly coat. – Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency Syndrome

Uses in Research • Cattle Disease Models – Lipofuscinosis in Ayrshires & Fresians –

Uses in Research • Cattle Disease Models – Lipofuscinosis in Ayrshires & Fresians – Glycogenesis in Shorthorns & Brahmans – Hereditary orotic aciduria in Holstein-Fresian & Fresian cattle – Hereditary Zinc Deficiency in Holstein-Fresian & Fresian cattle

Sources • Commercial vendors • USDA licensed dealers

Sources • Commercial vendors • USDA licensed dealers

Health Screening Sheep • Diseases – – – Coxiella burnettii (Q fever) Contagious Ecthyma

Health Screening Sheep • Diseases – – – Coxiella burnettii (Q fever) Contagious Ecthyma Caseous lymphadenitis Johne’s Disease Ovine Progressive Pneumonia – Internal Parasites (nasal bots, lungworms, intestinal worms) – External Parasitism (sheep keds) • Vaccinations – – – – – Bluetongue Brucella ovis Campylobacter spp. Chlamydia Clostridial Diseases Pneumonia complex Ovine ecthyma Dichelobacter nodosus Arcanobacterium pseudotuberculosis – Bacillus anthracis – Fusobacterium necrophorum

Health Screening Goats • Diseases – Coxiella burnettii (Q fever) – CAE (caprine arthritis

Health Screening Goats • Diseases – Coxiella burnettii (Q fever) – CAE (caprine arthritis encephalitis) – Brucellosis – Tuberculosis – Johne’s Disease – Caseus lymphadenitis – Contagious ecthyma – Mycoplasma • Vaccinations – Tetanus & other Clostridial diseases – Campylobacter spp. – Chlamydia – Caseous lymphadenitis – Contagious ecthyma – E. coli – Fusobacterium necrophorum

Health Screening Cattle • Screening – Johne’s Disease – Brucellosis – Tuberculosis – Respiratory

Health Screening Cattle • Screening – Johne’s Disease – Brucellosis – Tuberculosis – Respiratory Diseases – Internal and External Parasites – Foot Rot – Hairy Heel Warts

Health Screening Cattle • Essential Vaccinations – Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus – Infectious Bovine

Health Screening Cattle • Essential Vaccinations – Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus – Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis Virus – Bovine Respiratory Syncytial virus – Parainfluenza-3 – Leptospira pomona – Tritrichomonas fetus – Rotavirus – Coronavirus – Campylobacter (vibrio) – Pasteurella haemolytica – Pasteurella multocida – Brucella abortus • Other Available Vaccines – – – Clostridial diseases Moraxella bovis Fusobacterium necrophorum Staph aureus (mastitis) Haemophilus somnus Rabies Tetanus Bacillus anthracis Enterotoxigenic E. coli Anaplasma Other Leptospira spp.

Laboratory Management and Husbandry

Laboratory Management and Husbandry

Laboratory Management and Husbandry • Stress reduction in transportation, handling, and husbandry practices •

Laboratory Management and Husbandry • Stress reduction in transportation, handling, and husbandry practices • Floor – prevent slippage & support wt. • Feeders conformed to species • Continuous-access waterers • Social and herding animals need to be in eyesight and hearing of other animals • Single housed animals should have regular human contact • Environmental enrichment governed by SOP, protocol, and IACUC • Light cycle – close to natural conditions • Light intensity – around 220 lux

Unique Biology Ruminants • Three compartment forestomach – Rumen, reticulum, omasum • Rumen –

Unique Biology Ruminants • Three compartment forestomach – Rumen, reticulum, omasum • Rumen – Anaerobic fermentation chamber • bacteria & protozoa • Cellulase & other enzymes – Produce volatile fatty acids (VFA) – main source of energy • Acetic, propionic, butyric

Unique Biology Ruminants • VFA absorbed in large intestine – Unlike monogastrics • Microorganisms

Unique Biology Ruminants • VFA absorbed in large intestine – Unlike monogastrics • Microorganisms also synthesizes vitamins B, K and provide protein • Gases produced and eructated – CO 2, Methane, Nitrogen • Spiral Colon • No upper incisors

Unique Biology Ruminants • Immunoglobulins absorbed by pinocytosis in neonates and crucial to passive

Unique Biology Ruminants • Immunoglobulins absorbed by pinocytosis in neonates and crucial to passive transfer • Functional for the first 36 hours after parturition • Neonatal ruminants are immunocompetent

Unique Biology Ruminants • Ruminants have fewer neutrophils then lymphocytes • BUN cannot be

Unique Biology Ruminants • Ruminants have fewer neutrophils then lymphocytes • BUN cannot be used as indicator of renal function due to metabolism of urea by rumen microorganisms • Can go several days w/o water before dehydration occurs b/c _______ • Urine Ph is generally alkaline in adults

Unique Biology Ruminants • Erythrocytes are smaller than other mammals • Hematocrits tend to

Unique Biology Ruminants • Erythrocytes are smaller than other mammals • Hematocrits tend to be over estimated unless spun longer • Increased RBC fragility • Limited rouleaux formation - none in cattle; limited in sheep and goats • Sheep reported to have at least 6 different types of hemoglobin (in addition to fetal hemoglobin)

Unique Biology Ruminants • Caprine erythrocytes – More frail in Pygmy and Toggenburg –

Unique Biology Ruminants • Caprine erythrocytes – More frail in Pygmy and Toggenburg – Lack central pallor – Flat and lack bioconcavity – May exhibit poikilocytosis – 5 Blood groups (B, C, M, R-O, and X) – Cross matching advisable but not practical • Blood loss of up to 25% red cell mass well tolerated by goats (withdrawals of 10 ml/kg BW safe)

Basic Nutrition Ruminant – Commercial feeds, pasture, hay, concentrates – Sheep & Cattle: Grazers

Basic Nutrition Ruminant – Commercial feeds, pasture, hay, concentrates – Sheep & Cattle: Grazers – Goats: Browsers • Can be very selective, eating only leafy parts; waste hay • Tend to eat grasses, seeds, nuts, fruits, and woody stemmed plants • Do not tolerate finely ground concentrates • Do not prefer “sweet” feeds (except our “fat” goats) – Make nutrition changes slowly

Basic Nutrition Ruminants – Ration high in Ca or Phos or elevated Mg may

Basic Nutrition Ruminants – Ration high in Ca or Phos or elevated Mg may induce urinary calculi in male ruminants – May also occur in grasses or pastures high in silicates and oxalates – Newborns • Passive immunity form colostrum (mostly Ig. G) usually w/in 3 hrs of birth • Trypsin inhibitors allow passage of intact immunoglobulin • Colostrum dependent on herd management practices (vaccinations, nutrition, parasite control)

Reproduction Sheep • Seasonally polyestrous – Breed fall/winter; lamb in spring • Puberty: 7

Reproduction Sheep • Seasonally polyestrous – Breed fall/winter; lamb in spring • Puberty: 7 -8 months • Estrus cycle: 17 days • Estrus duration: 24 -30 hours – Ovulate spontaneously @ end • Gestation 147 -150 days • Prolificacy varies greatly with breed • Epitheliochorial placentation

Reproduction Goats • Seasonally polyestrous – Short day breeders • Puberty: 7 -10 months

Reproduction Goats • Seasonally polyestrous – Short day breeders • Puberty: 7 -10 months • Estrus cycle: 18 -24 days • Estrus duration: 24 -96 hours – Ovulate in estrus • Gestation: 145 -155 days • Does bear singletons, twins, & triplets & kid only once per year • Epitheliochorial placentation • Pseudopregnancy common

Reproduction Cattle • Polyestrous • Puberty – 10 -12 months (dairy) – 11 -15

Reproduction Cattle • Polyestrous • Puberty – 10 -12 months (dairy) – 11 -15 months (beef) • Estrus cycle: 21 days • Estrus duration: 6 -24 hours (avg 12 -16) – Ovulation: 24 -32 hrs after estrus • Gestation 270 -292 days • Epitheliochorial placentation

Reproduction Ruminants • Weaning – Sheep: 4 -8 weeks (usually 6 -8 wks) –

Reproduction Ruminants • Weaning – Sheep: 4 -8 weeks (usually 6 -8 wks) – Goats: 6 -10 weeks – Cattle • 4 -7 wks (dairy) • 7 months (beef) – beef cows tend to stay with their mother cows until weaning

Behavior Signs of stress – – – Excessive vocalizations Bruxism Decreased appetite Decreased cud

Behavior Signs of stress – – – Excessive vocalizations Bruxism Decreased appetite Decreased cud chewing Restlessness Prolonged recumbency with out stretched neck and head – Hunched appearance when standing – Limb favoring – Rough dull hair coats

Behavior – Sheep • Easily scared – move slowly and gently – Goats •

Behavior – Sheep • Easily scared – move slowly and gently – Goats • Orally investigative • May readily chew through wooden gates or fencing • May make sneezing noises to confront unfamiliar intruders – Cattle • Dairy=docile; Beef=not • Calves: non-nutritive suckling

Diseases Bacterial • Actinobacillosis (“Wooden Tongue”) – – Agent: Actinobacillus lignieresii Animals: Cattle &

Diseases Bacterial • Actinobacillosis (“Wooden Tongue”) – – Agent: Actinobacillus lignieresii Animals: Cattle & Sheep Organism penetrates wounds Diffuse abscesses/granulomas in tissues of head • Tongue lesions more common in cattle • Lip lesions more common in sheep • Soft-tissue/LN swelling with draining tracts – Treatment • Softer feeds • Antibiotics: sulfonamides, tetracyclines, ampicillin

Diseases Bacterial • Arcanobacterium – Arcanobacterium bovis – Lumpy Jaw • Normal flora; enters

Diseases Bacterial • Arcanobacterium – Arcanobacterium bovis – Lumpy Jaw • Normal flora; enters through wounds/abrasions • Causes firm, non-painful, immovable mandibular mass; fistulas may develop • Tx: pennicillin (or derivatives); sodium iodides (IV); potassium iodides (orally) • Poor prognosis – Arcanobacterium pyogenes (actinomycosis) • Omphalophlebitis, omphaloarteritis, omphalitis, navel ill

Diseases Bacterial • Anthrax – Agent: Bacillus anthracis – Animals: sheep, cattle, goats –

Diseases Bacterial • Anthrax – Agent: Bacillus anthracis – Animals: sheep, cattle, goats – Transmission: abrupt climate changes lead to spore release; spores ingested by grazing animals (sheep & cattle more than goats) – Clinical signs: swelling around shoulders, ventral neck, and thorax; bloody secretions; death – Prevention: vaccination with Sterne-strain spore vaccine – Zoonotic

Diseases Bacterial • Brucellosis (Bang’s Disease) – Agents: • Brucella melitensis – 1 o

Diseases Bacterial • Brucellosis (Bang’s Disease) – Agents: • Brucella melitensis – 1 o in sheep & goats • Brucella abortus – 1 o in cattle • Brucella ovis – Transmission: ingestion of infected tissues (milk, vaginal/uterine discharges) – Signs: abortions, hygromas, swollen scrotum – Treatment: cull and slaughter – Vaccination: • Rev 1 (sheep) – not available in the U. S. • Strain 19 (cattle) – public health risk (undulant fever) • RB 51 – official calfhood vaccine – Zoonotic (B. melitensis is leading cause of human brucellosis)

Diseases Bacterial • Campylobacteriosis (Vibriosis) – Agent: Campylobacter fetus • Subsp. intestinalis – most

Diseases Bacterial • Campylobacteriosis (Vibriosis) – Agent: Campylobacter fetus • Subsp. intestinalis – most important cause of ovine abortion in the U. S. – Transmission: GI tract Blood Stream; NOT venereal – Causes abortions (last trimester), stillbirths, weak lambs • Subsp. venerealis – cattle only – Transmission: venereal – Signs: high % return to estrus after breeding; abortions – Prevention: bacterin – Treatment: • Sheep: penicillin, oral chlortetracycline • Cattle: intrauterine penicillin – Zoonotic

Diseases Bacterial • Clostridial Infections – C. perfringens type C (Enterotoxemia, Struck) • Common

Diseases Bacterial • Clostridial Infections – C. perfringens type C (Enterotoxemia, Struck) • Common in sheep, goats, and cattle • Causes fatal hemorrhagic enterocolitis, enterotoxemia – C. perfringens type D (Pulpy Kidney Disease) – Disease of sheep – sudden death – – – C. chauvoei - Blackleg C. septicum - Malignant Edema C. novyi - Big Head, Black Disease C. hemolyticum – bacillary hemoglobinuria, “redwater” C. tetani - Tetanus

Diseases Bacterial • Clostridial Infections – Source: ubiquitous in environment; GI tract; contaminated feeds

Diseases Bacterial • Clostridial Infections – Source: ubiquitous in environment; GI tract; contaminated feeds – Transmission: ingestion; contamination of wounds – Prevention: vaccinate (multivalent vaccine available) – Treatment: • • usually futile antibiotics supportive antitoxin for tetanus

Diseases • Caseous Lymphadenitis – Common, chronic contagious infection of lymph nodes of sheep

Diseases • Caseous Lymphadenitis – Common, chronic contagious infection of lymph nodes of sheep and goats – Cause: Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis – Prevention: reject animals with lymphadenopathy or wounds – Treatment: antibiotics, lance and drain abscesses, cull animals

Diseases Bacterial • Corynebacterium renale group – C. renale • Normal inhabitant of bovine

Diseases Bacterial • Corynebacterium renale group – C. renale • Normal inhabitant of bovine genitourinary tract • acute pyelonephritis in cattle results from ascending infection following a compromise of protective mechanisms • Tx: penicillin (3 weeks) – C. pilosum & C. cystitidis • Normal inhabitants of prepuce of sheep and goats • Posthitis (pizzle rot) and vulvovaginitis – high-protein diets increase urinary p. H; ammonia irritates prepucial and vulvar skin, increasing vulnerability • Tx: decrease dietary protein

Diseases Bacterial • Foot Rot of Sheep and Goats – Cause: Fusobacterium necrophorum (normal

Diseases Bacterial • Foot Rot of Sheep and Goats – Cause: Fusobacterium necrophorum (normal inhabitant) and Dichelobacter nodosus (environmental contaminant) – Most common cause of lameness in sheep – Prevention • maintain dry, clean environment • reject clinical cases at delivery • vaccinate – Treatment • foot baths - 10% formalin or 10% zinc sulfate or 10% copper sulfate • penicillin and streptomycin • trim affected tissue

Diseases Bacterial • Foot Rot of Cattle – Cause: Fusobacterium necrophorum and Bacteroides melaninogenicus

Diseases Bacterial • Foot Rot of Cattle – Cause: Fusobacterium necrophorum and Bacteroides melaninogenicus – Signs: Acute lameness, malodor w/ little discharge – Prevention • maintain dry, clean environment • Vaccinate – Treatment • foot baths – 2. 5% formalin or 10% zinc sulfate or 5% copper sulfate • penicillin and oxytetracycline • trim affected tissue

Diseases Bacterial • Heel Warts (Bovine Digital Dermatitis, Interdigital Papillomatosis, Papillomatous Digital Dermatitis, Hairy

Diseases Bacterial • Heel Warts (Bovine Digital Dermatitis, Interdigital Papillomatosis, Papillomatous Digital Dermatitis, Hairy Foot Warts) – Cattle only – Cause? : Fusobacterium spp. , Bacteroides spp. , Dichelobacter nodosus, + poor facility management – Lesions of haired digital skin: erect hairs; loss of hair; thickened skin, painful moist plaques (red, gray, or black) – Treatment: antibiotics, footbaths, surgical debridement – Prevention: as noted for foot rot

Diseases • Thromboembolic Meningoencephalitis (TEME) – Agent: Haemophilus somnus (also involved in BRD complex)

Diseases • Thromboembolic Meningoencephalitis (TEME) – Agent: Haemophilus somnus (also involved in BRD complex) – Signs: depression, ataxia, falling, conscious proprioceptive deficits, death within 36 hours – Transmission: respiratory secretions – Vaccination for viral respiratory pathogens may predispose – Prevention: avoid vaccinating for IBR and BVD during times of stress – Treatment: penicillin, oxytetracycline

Diseases • Mastitis – Sheep: • Pasteurella hemolytica most common – Goats: • Staphylococcus

Diseases • Mastitis – Sheep: • Pasteurella hemolytica most common – Goats: • Staphylococcus epidermidis most common – Cattle: • Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus spp. , E. coli, Enterobacter aerogenes, Serratia marcescens, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Mycoplasma spp. , Salmonella spp. • Mastitis is disease of greatest economic impact for dairy cattle

Diseases Bacterial • Infectious Bovine Keratoconjunctivitis (Pinkeye) – Agent: Moraxella bovis – Cattle only

Diseases Bacterial • Infectious Bovine Keratoconjunctivitis (Pinkeye) – Agent: Moraxella bovis – Cattle only – Signs: lacrimation, photophobia, blepharospasm, conjunctival injection, ulceration – More severe in animals infected with IBR or who have recently been vaccinated for IBR (modified-live vacc) – Transmission: • shed in nasal secretions • Fomites, flies, aerosols, direct contact – Treatment • Topical antibiotics • Subconjunctival injections of Pennicillin

Diseases Bacterial • Tuberculosis – Cause: Acid-Fast Bacteria • Mycobacterium bovis (sheep, goats, cattle)

Diseases Bacterial • Tuberculosis – Cause: Acid-Fast Bacteria • Mycobacterium bovis (sheep, goats, cattle) • Mycobacterium avium (sheep, goats) • Mycobacterium tuberculosis (goats) – Signs: • may be asymptomatic • dyspnea, coughing, and pneumonia • diarrhea, bloat, constipation – Prevention: intradermal tuberculin test, cull and slaughter – Treatment: None – Zoonotic

Diseases Bacterial • Johne’s Disease (Paratuberculosis) – Chronic, contagious, granulomatous disease of adult ruminants

Diseases Bacterial • Johne’s Disease (Paratuberculosis) – Chronic, contagious, granulomatous disease of adult ruminants – Cause: Mycobacterium paratuberculosis (acid-fast) – Long incubation period – Signs: chronic wasting, pasty feces, diarrhea – Transmission: direct or indirect contact – Prevention: Test and slaughter – Treatment: None

Diseases Bacterial • Respiratory Disease Complex of Ruminants – BRDC in cattle, BRD in

Diseases Bacterial • Respiratory Disease Complex of Ruminants – BRDC in cattle, BRD in calves, “shipping fever” – Most economically important disease of beef cattle • Combinations of numerous agents – Bacterial: Pasteurella haemolytica, P. multicida, Hemophilus somnus, Corynebacterium pyogenes – Viral: Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis (IBR). Parainfluenza-3 (PI-3), Bovine Respiratory Syncytial virus (BRSV), Bovine Viral Diarrhea (BVD) – Mycoplasma bovis, M. dispar

Diseases Bacterial • Respiratory Disease Complex of Ruminants – Onset of disease related to

Diseases Bacterial • Respiratory Disease Complex of Ruminants – Onset of disease related to stress: • Shipping, weaning, weather changes, dietary changes, overcrowding, shearing – Signs: nasal discharge, fever, coughing, dyspnea, diarrhea, depression, death – Treatment: • Antibiotics: ceftiofur, tilmicosin, florfenicol, oxytetracycline, tilosin • Anti-inflammatory: Banamine • Supportive Care – Prevention: reduce stress, precondition, vaccinate

Diseases Bacterial • Contagious Caprine Pleuropneumonia – Cause: Mycoplasma mycoides biotype F 38 –

Diseases Bacterial • Contagious Caprine Pleuropneumonia – Cause: Mycoplasma mycoides biotype F 38 – Signs: severe dyspnea, nasal discharge, cough, and fever – High morbidity and mortality – Transmission: aerosol – Prevention: vaccinate; quarantine – Treatment: Tylosin and Oxytetracycline

Diseases Bacterial • Q-Fever – Highly contagious disease of sheep and goats – Agent:

Diseases Bacterial • Q-Fever – Highly contagious disease of sheep and goats – Agent: Coxiella burnetti - rickettsial organism – Transmission • Ixodid or Argasid ticks • Ingestion of infected materials (placenta, milk, urine , feces, nasal secretions) – – Major cause of late abortion in sheep Usually asymptomatic in cattle and goats Treatment: oxytetracycline Zoonotic (single organism shown to cause disease)

Diseases Viral • Bluetongue Virus – Most common ulcerative disease of sheep in US

Diseases Viral • Bluetongue Virus – Most common ulcerative disease of sheep in US (less common in goats and cattle) – Cause: • Reoviridae family, Orbivirus genus • Transmission: biting midge (Culicoides variipennis) – Signs: • hemorrhage and ulcers in mouth and nose, cyanosis of the tongue, ulcerations of coronary band, lameness, pneumonia, abortions, diarrhea, death – Prevention: modified live virus vaccine – Treatment: supportive care – Reportable disease (resembles FMD)

Diseases Viral • Bovine Lymphosarcoma – Adult cattle: • associated with Bovine Leukemia Virus

Diseases Viral • Bovine Lymphosarcoma – Adult cattle: • associated with Bovine Leukemia Virus (BLV) • Transmission: inhalation, colostrum, fomites • 2 forms – Malignant Lymphoma: most common bovine neoplastic disease in the U. S. – Leukosis (B-lymphocyte proliferation): rare – Young cattle: • not associated with BLV • Rare – Sheep: natural infection has occurred; experimental model – Goats: seroconvert to BLV, but do not develop clinical disease

Diseases Viral • Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (Flavivirus) – BVD virus is ubiquitous (70

Diseases Viral • Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (Flavivirus) – BVD virus is ubiquitous (70 -90% of all cattle seropositive) – Acute Form (NCP) • Affects immunocompetent, but immunologically naïve cattle • Signs: diarrhea, fever, leukopenia, oral erosions, oculonasal discharge, hypogalactia – In utero infection (NCP) • abortions, congenital anomalies, persistently infected calves – Mucosal Disease • PI animal that becomes infected with a CP strain (mutant) • Usually results in death • 10% will survive to first calving Real Problem – Prevention: Vaccination

Diseases Viral • Caprine Arthritis Encephalitis Virus – Most important viral disease of goats

Diseases Viral • Caprine Arthritis Encephalitis Virus – Most important viral disease of goats – Cause: Lentivirus (similar to OPPV) – Transmission • vertical via colostrum and milk – Signs • progressive arthritis (six months and older) – Carpal joint most common, followed by stifle, hock, and hip • neurological symptoms in kids • pneumonia (older animals) • mastitis (older animals) – Prevention: • remove kids at birth; test and cull – Treatment: None – Infection is lifelong

Diseases Viral • Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis – Agent: IBR virus, Bovine Herpesvirus 1 •

Diseases Viral • Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis – Agent: IBR virus, Bovine Herpesvirus 1 • BHV-1. 1 (IBR) • BHV-1. 2 (IBR-Infectious Pustular Vulvovaginitis) • BHV-1. 4 (neurologic disease) – Fibronecrotic rhinotracheitis is pathognomonic – Signs: gray pustules/plaques on muzzle, nasal discharge, open-mouth breathing, – IBR and BVD are the most common causes of bovine abortion – Treatment: antibiotics – Prevention: vaccinate

Diseases Viral • Border Disease (Hairy Shaker Disease) – Primarily a disease of sheep;

Diseases Viral • Border Disease (Hairy Shaker Disease) – Primarily a disease of sheep; – Cause: Pestivirus; closely related to BVD virus – Transmission: PI animals shed virus in urine, feces, and saliva – In Utero infections result in: • early embryonic death • abortion • developmental abnormalities - tremor, hirsutism, hypothyroidism, CNS defects, joint abnormalities – Prevention: Vaccinate with killed BVDV vaccine – Treatment: supportive care

Diseases Viral • Contagious Ecthyma (Orf) – – Viral infection of sheep and goats

Diseases Viral • Contagious Ecthyma (Orf) – – Viral infection of sheep and goats Cause: parapoxvirus - capable of surviving for years Usually seen in young animals Signs: • lesions and scab formation around mouth, nostrils, eyes, nonwooled areas around mammary gland vulva – Most commonly at commissures of mouth • Infected lactating ewes may abandon lambs – Treatment: supportive – Prevention: • Vaccinate • Disinfect equipment etc. in between use – Zoonotic

Diseases Viral • Malignant Catarrhal Fever (MCF) – Severe disease primarily of cattle, but

Diseases Viral • Malignant Catarrhal Fever (MCF) – Severe disease primarily of cattle, but all ruminants susceptible – Signs • Corneal edema starting at limbus and progressing centripetally is nearly pathognomonic • Other signs include: oral erosions, purulent nasal discharge, encephalitis, lymphadenopathy, shed horns and hooves, diarrhea, sudden death – Transmission • Goats and cattle that survive are reservoirs • Shed from nasopharynx • Direct contact, water troughs, placenta, aerosols, fomites – Infection is lifelong

Diseases Viral • Ovine Progressive Pneumonia Virus (OPPV, Maedi/Visna) – Cause: Lentivirus (closely related

Diseases Viral • Ovine Progressive Pneumonia Virus (OPPV, Maedi/Visna) – Cause: Lentivirus (closely related to CAEV) – Signs • after long incubation period (up to 2 years) • progressive weight loss, pneumonia, lameness, paralysis, mastitis, death – Transmission • horizontal (aerosol) • vertical - in utero and via infected milk and colostrum – Prevention: • Test and cull • Remove lambs from ewes at birth – Treatment: none

Diseases Viral • Pulmonary Adenomatosis (Jaagsiekte) – Rare Disease • progressive respiratory signs (dyspnea,

Diseases Viral • Pulmonary Adenomatosis (Jaagsiekte) – Rare Disease • progressive respiratory signs (dyspnea, hyperpnea) and wasting • Incubation up to 2 years – Cause: Type D retrovirus – Transmission: aerosol – Treatment: None

Diseases Viral • Papillomatosis (Warts, Verrucae) – Agent: Bovine Papillomavirus (types 1 -5) •

Diseases Viral • Papillomatosis (Warts, Verrucae) – Agent: Bovine Papillomavirus (types 1 -5) • BPV-1 and BPV-2: fibropapilomas on teats, penis, head, neck, dewlap • BPV-3: flat warts anywhere on body • BPV-4: warts in GI tract • BPV-5: small white warts on teats – Very common in cattle, less common in sheep and goats – Sheep and goats rarely get verrucious type warts which may develop into squamous cell carcinomas – Transmission: direct/indirect contact through wounds – Treatment: often spontaneously resolve (not BPV-3 and BPV-5); surgical excision; cryosurgery – Prevention: commercial vaccine (cattle); autogenous

Diseases Viral • Pseudorabies (Mad Itch, Aujeszky’s Dz) – Primarily a clinical disease of

Diseases Viral • Pseudorabies (Mad Itch, Aujeszky’s Dz) – Primarily a clinical disease of cattle (less frequently in sheep and goats) – Signs: abrasions, swelling, pruritis, hyperthermia, vocalize frantically, salivation, neurologic signs – Usually fatal – Transmission • Swine are primary host and reservoir and are usually assymptomatic • Oral, intranasal, intradermal, or SQ introduction of virus (including modified-live swine vaccine) – No treatment – Reportable: nationwide eradication program

Diseases • Tranmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies – Caused by prion (nonantigenic replicating proteins) – Bovine

Diseases • Tranmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies – Caused by prion (nonantigenic replicating proteins) – Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy • Incubation period of years • Progressive neurological illness – Scrapie • More common in sheep than goats • Affects young animals, but incubation 2 -5 years • Signs: excitable, tremors of head and neck muscles, uncoordinated movements, “bunny hopping”, severe pruritis, blindness, death within 4 -6 weeks • Suffolk especially susceptible; Targhee resistant – USDA prohibits feeding mammalian proteins to ruminants – Reportable

Diseases Viral • Vesicular Stomatits – Agent: Vesicular Stomatitis Virus (Rhabdoviridae) – Disease of

Diseases Viral • Vesicular Stomatits – Agent: Vesicular Stomatitis Virus (Rhabdoviridae) – Disease of Cattle; rarely sheep (also horses & swine) – Signs: vesicles on oral MM, teats and interdigital spaces, ulcers and erosions; anorexia, salivation – Transmission: secretions spread by fomites, human hands, possibly contaminated feed and water, and possible some flying insects (mechanical vectors) – Treatment: segregate; topical antibiotics for 2 o infections – Prevention: vaccine during outbreak – Reportable because similarity to FMD – Zoonotic – flu-like disease in humans

Diseases Viral • Viral Diarrhea Diseases – 1 o young animals – Sheep •

Diseases Viral • Viral Diarrhea Diseases – 1 o young animals – Sheep • Rotaviruses, Coronaviruses – Goats • Rotaviruses, Coronaviruses, Adenoviruses – Cattle • Rotaviruses – diarrhea is typically distinctive yellow; may become zoonotoic • Coronaviruses • Parvoviruses • Winter Dysentary – diarrhea has distinctive musty sweet odor, light brown and bubbly – Prevention: good quality colostrum

Diseases Chlamydial • Enzootic Abortion – Cause: Chlamydphila psittaci (formerly Chlamydia psittaci) – Signs:

Diseases Chlamydial • Enzootic Abortion – Cause: Chlamydphila psittaci (formerly Chlamydia psittaci) – Signs: • late abortion • birth of stillborns • birth of weak kids/lambs – Transmission • direct contact with infectious secretions (placental, fetal, and uterine fluids) • Indirect contact with contaminated feed and water – Prevention • Vaccinate – prevents abortions, but not infection • Quarantine - recovered does/ewes usually immune thereafter – Treatment - Oxytetracycline

Diseases • Conjunctivitis-Polyarthritis Syndrome – Cause: Chlamydphila psittaci (Formerly Chlamydia psittaci) – Signs: •

Diseases • Conjunctivitis-Polyarthritis Syndrome – Cause: Chlamydphila psittaci (Formerly Chlamydia psittaci) – Signs: • ocular lesions – Most common cause of infectious keratoconjunctivitis in sheep – Conjunctival hyperemia, edema, ulceration, opacity • arthritis – Lameness in one or all legs – Prevention: Quarantine – Treatment: • Self-limiting: resolves spontaneously in 2 -4 weeks • Ocular - tetracycline ophthalmic medication • Systemic Disease - Oxytetracycline

Diseases Parasitic • Anaplasmosis – Agent: Anaplasma marginale (protozoa) – Hemolytic disease of cattle

Diseases Parasitic • Anaplasmosis – Agent: Anaplasma marginale (protozoa) – Hemolytic disease of cattle – Spread by Dermacentor andersoni and D. occidentalis – Tx: oxytetracycline • Babesiosis – Agent: Babesia bovis and Ba. Bigemina (protozoa) – Subclinical infections in cattle – Spread by Boophilus ticks – Hemolysis liver and kidney disease – Reportable

Diseases Parasitic • Coccidiosis (protozoa) – Causes hemorrhagic diarrhea in ruminants – Transmitted via

Diseases Parasitic • Coccidiosis (protozoa) – Causes hemorrhagic diarrhea in ruminants – Transmitted via ingestion of sporulated oocysts – Treatment • Coccidiostats preferable to coccidiocidals because the former allow development of immunity • Sulfonamides, amprolium, decoquinate, lasalocid, monensin • Cryptosporidiosis (protozoa) – Common cause of diarrhea in young ruminants – Dx: oocysts in iodine-stained feces; fecal floats without sugar – Tx: none - self-limiting – Zoonotic

Diseases Parasitic • Neosporosis – – – Neospora caninum (protozoa) Common cause of bovine

Diseases Parasitic • Neosporosis – – – Neospora caninum (protozoa) Common cause of bovine abortion (3 rd -7 th month) Transmission: transplacental; ingesting ooccysts No treatment Definitive host: canine • Toxoplasmosis – – – Toxoplasma gondii (protozoa) Major case of abortions in sheep and goats Transmission: ingesting oocysts; transplacental No effective treatment Definitive host: feline Zoonotic

Diseases Parasitic • Trichomoniasis – Agent: Tritrichomonas fetus (protozoa) – Signs: infertility, pyometras, abortions

Diseases Parasitic • Trichomoniasis – Agent: Tritrichomonas fetus (protozoa) – Signs: infertility, pyometras, abortions • Organism does not interfere with conception; embryonic death occurs within 2 months of infection – Transmission: venereal – Prevention: vaccinate; cull chronically infected bulls – Treatment: imidazole effective, but cannot be used in food animals

Diseases Parasitic • Nematodes – Haemonchus contortus (barber pole worm) • Most important internal

Diseases Parasitic • Nematodes – Haemonchus contortus (barber pole worm) • Most important internal parasite of sheep and goats • Anemia, hypoproteinemia, intermandibular and cervical edema – Ostertagia circumcincta (medium stomach worm) • Sheep and goats – Ostertagia ostertagia (cattle stomach worm) • Most pathogenic and costly cattle nematode – Dictyocaulus (lungworms) • Various respiratory signs in all ruminants – Tx: Ivermectin, Levamisole

Diseases Parasitic • Trematodes – Fascioliasis (liver fluke disease) • Agents – Fasciola hepatica

Diseases Parasitic • Trematodes – Fascioliasis (liver fluke disease) • Agents – Fasciola hepatica – Fascioloides magns – Dicrocelium dendriticum • Intermediate host: usually a freshwater snail • Signs of acute liver disease related to migration of immature flukes through the liver • Chronic disease from damage to bile ducts and cholangiohepatitis • Predisposes to invasion with Clostridial spp. • Necropsy: livers pale and friable =/- migration tunnels • Tx: albendazole

Diseases Parasites • Mites – rare in ruminants in the U. S. , but

Diseases Parasites • Mites – rare in ruminants in the U. S. , but Sarcoptes and Psorergates are reportable • Lice – Sheep • Biting: Damalinia ovis • Sucking: Linognathus ovillus, L. pedalis – Goats • Biting: D. caprae, D. limbatus, D. crassipes • Sucking: L. stenopis, L. africanus – Cattle • Biting: D. bovis • Sucking: L. vituli, Solenoptes capillatus, Haematopinuseurysternus, H. quadripertusis • Ticks – many Ixodidae and Argasidae species

Diseases Parasites • Other parasites – Nasal bots/head grubs (Oestrus ovis) – Screwworm flies

Diseases Parasites • Other parasites – Nasal bots/head grubs (Oestrus ovis) – Screwworm flies (Cochliomyia hominivorax) • Reportable – Sheep Keds (Melophagus ovinus)

Diseases Fungal • Dermatophytosis (Ringworm) – Common fungal infection of cattle – Trichophyton verrucosum

Diseases Fungal • Dermatophytosis (Ringworm) – Common fungal infection of cattle – Trichophyton verrucosum is 1 o agent – Signs: multiple, gray, crusty, circumscribed, hyperkeratotic lesions around head, neck and ears – Dx: Dermatophyte Test Media (DTM) – Spontaneous recovery 1 -4 months – Treatment • Topical: 2 -5% lime-sulfur solution, 3% captan, iodophors, thiabendazole, and 0. 5% hypochlorite • Systemic: griseofulvin – Zoonotic

Diseases Genetic • Entropion – sheep and goats • Beta-Mannosidosis – goats (Nubian) –

Diseases Genetic • Entropion – sheep and goats • Beta-Mannosidosis – goats (Nubian) – Lysosomal storage disease – Intention tremors, difficulty standing, deaf • Congenital Myotonia – goats – “fainting goats” – transient spasms of skeletal muscle brought about by visual, tactile, or auditory stimuli • Congenital erythropoietic porphyria – cattle • Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency Syndrome –cattle (Holstein) • Goiter of Sheep – sheep (Merino) • Spider Lamb Syndrome – sheep (Suffollk and Hampshire) – Hereditary chondrodysplasia

Diseases Metabolic • Abomasal displacement – RDA • May be complicated by torsion •

Diseases Metabolic • Abomasal displacement – RDA • May be complicated by torsion • surgical emergency – LDA • More common – Signs: anorexia, decreased cud chewing, decreased ruminal contractions, decreased respiratory rate, increased heart rate – Dx: “Pinging” – Cause: • Gas accumulation causes abomasum to “float” up • No exact cause identified – Treatment • RDA: surgery • LDA: surgical or non-surgical correction

Diseases Metabolic • Rumen Tympany (Bloat) – Frothy bloat - excessive ingestion of highly

Diseases Metabolic • Rumen Tympany (Bloat) – Frothy bloat - excessive ingestion of highly fermentable carbohydrates • Treatment – Mineral oil, household detergents, or anti-fermentatives via stomach tube – Trocarize rumen – Free gas bloat • Interference with normal eructation mechanism – Esophageal obstruction, vagal nerve paralysis, some CNS conditions • Prevention – withhold feed for at least 24 hours prior to anesthesia, etc. • Treatment – pass stomach tube – trocarize rumen

Diseases Metabolic • Lactic Acidosis (Grain overload) – Cause: excessive ingestion of highly fermentable

Diseases Metabolic • Lactic Acidosis (Grain overload) – Cause: excessive ingestion of highly fermentable carbohydrates • Leads to shift from gram-negative rumen bacterial population to gram-positive Streptococcus and Lactobacillus • Lactic acidifies the rumen leading to inflammation • ulcers, liver abscesses, laminitis, polioencephalomalacia – Prevention: • avoid sudden dietary changes • avoid over feeding of high carbohydrate diets – Treatment: • • IV fluids magnesium hydroxide intraruminal; Na bicarb IV flush rumen or rumenotomy transfaunation

Diseases Metabolic • Traumatic Reticulitis. Reticulopertonitis – – Also Traumatic Reticulitis-Pericarditis Aka. Hardware disease

Diseases Metabolic • Traumatic Reticulitis. Reticulopertonitis – – Also Traumatic Reticulitis-Pericarditis Aka. Hardware disease Cattle, rarely small ruminants Caused by ingestion of sharp metallic objects which drop into the reticulum & penetrates the reticulum; further migrations may lead to penetration of the diaphragm and pericardium – Prevention • Eliminate sharp objects in food and environment • Forestomach magnets

Diseases Metabolic • Pregnancy Toxemia (Ketosis, Twin Lamb Disease) – 1 o in Sheep

Diseases Metabolic • Pregnancy Toxemia (Ketosis, Twin Lamb Disease) – 1 o in Sheep and Goats that are overweight or bearing twins – Seen in during late gestation or early lactation – Signs • depression, anorexia, weakness, neurologic signs, fetal death, ketonuria – Cause: inadequate glucose production secondary to increased requirements – Prevention: increase nutrition – Treatment: • IV fluids, IV glucose, B vitamins, propylene glycol, induce abortion or c-section – Protein Energy Malnutrition in heifer cattle is similar, but generally not associated with overconditioning or twins

Diseases Metabolic • Hypocalcemia (Parturient Paresis, Milk Fever) – Sheep: overweight ewes during last

Diseases Metabolic • Hypocalcemia (Parturient Paresis, Milk Fever) – Sheep: overweight ewes during last six weeks of gestation or first few weeks of lactation • Signs: muscle tetany, incoordination, paralysis, coma, death – Goats: not as common • Signs: bloated, weak, unsteady, recumbent – Cattle: 24 -48 hours before/after parturition • Signs: weak, muscle tremors, inability to stand, coma, death – Cause: • calcium needs exceed body’s uptake of calcium – Prevention: • Maintain proper nutrition during last trimester • appropriate Ca: P ratio • limit Ca intake early on – Treatment: IV calcium borogluconate, calcium gels & boluses

Diseases Metabolic • Urinary Calculi (Obstructive Urolithiasis, Water Belly) – Rare in ruminants –

Diseases Metabolic • Urinary Calculi (Obstructive Urolithiasis, Water Belly) – Rare in ruminants – Urethral blockage • male sheep and goats: pizzle • male cattle: sigmoid flexure – Signs • treading, straining, arched back, raised tail, squatting, pizzle may be discolored – Type: 1 o struvite – Prevention • diet with 2: 1 Ca: P ratio, dietary roughage and salt, add ammonium chloride to diet – Treatment • surgical - amputate pizzle, perineal urethrostomy

Diseases Metabolic • Copper Intoxication – 1 o a disease of sheep – Acute

Diseases Metabolic • Copper Intoxication – 1 o a disease of sheep – Acute hemolytic crisis • sudden weakness, recumbency, hemoglobinuria, intravascular hemolysis, anemia, icterus, sudden death – Cause: chronic ingestion of copper • Feeding cattle feeds and concetrates to sheep • Copper-containing pesticides • Soil additives – Prevention: Feed proper ration – Treatment • ammonium molybdenate, sodium molybdenate, Dpenicillamine, transfusion

Diseases Metabolic • Selenium/Vitamin E Deficiency (White Muscle Disease) – A nutritional muscular dystrophy

Diseases Metabolic • Selenium/Vitamin E Deficiency (White Muscle Disease) – A nutritional muscular dystrophy – Two forms • Cardiac - seen most often in neonates – Respiratory difficulty due to damage of cardiac, diaphragmatic, and intercostal muscles; locomotor disturbances and circulatory failure • Skeletal – Reluctant to move; painful muscles – Cause: Selenium (most common) and/or Vit. E Deficiency – Prevention: proper diet; awareness of regional selenium deficiencies – Treatment: injectable selenium and/or Vitamin E

Diseases Metabolic • Thiamine Deficiency (Polioencephalomalacia) – Animals affected: • Adult ruminant on high-concentrate

Diseases Metabolic • Thiamine Deficiency (Polioencephalomalacia) – Animals affected: • Adult ruminant on high-concentrate diets – most common • Ruminants exposed to toxic plants or moldy feed containing thiaminases • Ruminants on high-sulfate feeds – Signs: bruxism, hyperesthesia, involuntary muscle contractions, opisthotonus, seizures, wandering aimlessly, headpressing, death – Prevention: provide enough high quality roughage to prevent overgrowth of thiaminase-producing ruminal flora – Treatment: thiamine hydrochloride

Diseases Management-Related • • • Failure of Passive Transfer Laminitis Photosensitization - 2 o

Diseases Management-Related • • • Failure of Passive Transfer Laminitis Photosensitization - 2 o (liver dz) most common) Vaginal & Uterine Prolapses Rectal Prolapses Trichobezoars

Diseases Neoplastic • Neoplasia and tumors relatively rare in ruminants • Sheep – Lymphosarcoma/leukemia

Diseases Neoplastic • Neoplasia and tumors relatively rare in ruminants • Sheep – Lymphosarcoma/leukemia – results from a virus related to BLV – Pulmonary carcinoma (pulmonary adenomatosis) • Goats – Thymoma – Cutaneous papillomas which may progress to SCC • Cattle – Lymphosarcoma of various organ systems – Ocular Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC) – “cancer eye” – Papillomatosis (warts) are common

Diseases Misc. • Amyloidosis – cattle – Accumulations of amyloid in kidney, liver, adrenal

Diseases Misc. • Amyloidosis – cattle – Accumulations of amyloid in kidney, liver, adrenal glands, and GI tract associated with chronic inflammatory disease – Signs: chronic diarrhea, wt. loss, proteinuria – Poor prognosis; no treatment • Dental Wear – sheep – Associated with dietary contamination with silica, or grazing in sandy environments • Sole Abscesses – cattle – Fusobacterium necrophorum often involved

Diseases • Other Important Diseases – – – – – Rabies – zoonotic, reportable

Diseases • Other Important Diseases – – – – – Rabies – zoonotic, reportable Leptosporosis - zoonotic E. coli - zoonotic Salmonellosis - zoonotic Lyme Disease - zoonotic Tularemia - zoonotic Foot & Mouth Disease – reportable Proliferative Stomatitis - zoonotic Pseudocowpox - zoonotic

Recent Literature • The Genetic Immunodeficiency Disease, Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency, in Humans, Dogs, Cattle,

Recent Literature • The Genetic Immunodeficiency Disease, Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency, in Humans, Dogs, Cattle, and Mice. CM, Vol. 54, No. 4, August 2004 • Ovine Model to Evaluate Ovarian Vascularization by Using Contrast-Enhancd Sonography, CM, Vol. 55, No. 2, April 2005

References • • • Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2 nd Edition, 2002, pages 519 -614.

References • • • Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2 nd Edition, 2002, pages 519 -614. Large Animal Internal Medicine: Diseases of Horses, Cattle, Sheep, and Goats, 2 nd Edition, Smith, 1996. Google Image Searches

Questions?

Questions?